I noticed another blog post about the PSS, and I’m not surprised but it may be the greatest tool.
The perceived stress scale (PSS) has been shown to provide significant representation of stress individuals, while providing quantitative data to researchers. This is super useful in my proposal, as provides a more cultural perception of stress, rather than just a blood or saliva biomarker.
Cohen, Sheldon, Kamarck, Tom., Mermelstein, Robin. 1983 A Global Measure of Perceived Stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 24(4):385-396
Since salivary cortisol measurements are such an important part of my research proposal I tried to find multiple sources to get an idea of methodology. This study used salivary cortisol to test the stress levels in students who had lost a parent and perceived their surviving parent to be more or less caring. Those that had a parent they perceived as less caring had higher salivary cortisol levels after doing something stressful than those with a more caring parent. I thought this study was interesting and maybe slightly helpful when designing my methods section.
Luecken, L. J. (2000). Parental caring and loss during childhood and adult cortisol responses to stress. Psychology and Health, 15(6), 841-851.
I will be using galvanic skin response as part of my data collection for my research and found one article particularly helpful. It detailed both methods and materials. They were simply interested in testing whether they could detect stress through GSR but that is all I really need for my purposes as well so it was useful to me. I would recommend this for someone interested in using GSR.
Villarejo, M. V., Zapirain, B. G., & Zorrilla, A. M. (2012). A stress sensor based on Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) controlled by ZigBee. Sensors, 12(5), 6075-6101.
The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) will be utilized because the population sample will most likely be older adults, the format is simple, the scoring is in sub-sections and overall, and it suits the research topic and sample well. In their article “Impact of Event Scale-Revised” Christianson and Marren explain why the IES-R is better suited for an older population than the IES although the Impact of Event Scale is also a good test. Their article also gives an example format of the test and how to score it which is helpful.
For my research proposal I will be using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised as one of my measures to understand psychological stress in the bereaved. In the research paper by Pennebaker, Mayne, and Francis (1997) “Linguistic Predictors of Adaptive Bereavement” the Impact of Event Scale is just one of the measurements used to understand grief in people who have lost their partners to HIV/AIDS. The scale helps to understand how a recent relatively traumatic event is affecting an individual’s day to day functioning in their everyday life, emotions, and thoughts.