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This weeks' reading revolved around stress on the human body. These blueprints to hormone level production, neuron response, and the neurological development was displayed in a case study by Aaron Kindsvatter and Anne Geroski. In this article entitled, “The Impact of Early Life Stress on the Neurodevelopment of the Stress Response System, they present a study with both an animal model and humans. This article is used to describe the functioning of the stress response system of the brain and to review literature pertaining to the impact of early life stress on the development of the stress response mechanisms.

The primary mechanisms of the stress response system include the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis (SAM), the limbic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA). The SAM axis involves direct connection between the norepinephrine center of the brain stem and the adrenal glands and is associated with the activation of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. Most would also refer to the system in regards to the para-sympathetic nervous system in reference to a “flight or fight” response. Under this division of the autonomic nervous system, this response also helps to regulate homeostasis and allostasis. The HPA plays a key function in stress response by initiating a series of neurotransmitters and Nero hormonal cascades that, among other functions, serve to regulate the body’s response to stress.

These researchers used both rats and cats as control groups to help correlate stress among early development to adult hood. Among the cats, they inhibited some of the cats from using their right eye upon birth. In this they found that these now grown cats developed conditioned eye sight even after eye sight with both eyes were permitted. This carried on neuro-response was also relate able to maternal instincts among mothers of human under post and prenatal stress. Among this study, the same results among the cats and rats were valid. These lasting effects per-conditioned the brain to produce more stress relieving hormones. More ACTH and CRF resulted in the diagnosis of PSTD. This study was also compared to cortisol levels of adult survivors of child abuse. Within all of the new found diagnosis, the idea of threat experienced at an early age resulted in lifetime effects of such bodily productions to counteract future threats.

In all, the body’s response to previous witnessed ideas of threat will promote certain synaptic response with different levels of hormone production; hence, why some people experience strokes more rapidly. Stress can cause major body dysfunctions. It is even one of the leading cause of death in the U.S. Stress will condition the brain to adapt to certain experiences at certain times, without this modification through early stress level identification, the explanation of stressful adulthood might be still in question.

Geriski and Aaron Kindsvatter (2011). "The Impact of Early Life Stress on the Nuerodevelopment of the Stress Response System". American Counseling Association.

In this week’s reading, climate change and adaption among humans was the issue at hand. We learned that human-occupied environments of today are extremely different from those of tropical forests beginnings as well, historical Neanderthals. Within environments, one’s body will either adapt to hot or cold conditions. The way in which the body adapts to these environments is known as thermoregulation in correspondence with homeostasis. They body reacts based solely on its environment. With this aspect, we can also expand this knowledge into broader realms of nutrition. In direct relation with body temperature, the contraction of muscles, and acclimatization, what is put into the body helps regulate certain temperatures. Ecologically speaking, agricultural production is also based on particular environmental conditions. Without the production of fruits, vegetables, and domesticated farm animals, the average human body cannot exist very long in strenuous environments of excess heat or extreme cold. This brings to my article entitled, “Public Health and Climate Change Adaptation at the Federal Level.”

In this piece, Jeremy J. Hess and Paul J. Schramm, identify on a federal level, agencies response to an executive order by President Obama among public health and climate change adaptation. They began by exploring what climate change is, and how it contributes to executive orders of public health. “Climate change is projected to cause many adverse health effects in the United States and abroad. The adverse health effects will result from a range of direct and indirect exposures that come from shifting ecosystems dynamics; worsening air quality, increasingly frequent and severe extreme heat events; shifts in precipitation, including more frequent and severe storms and floods; sea level rise; and ocean acidification.” The Department of Health and Human resources, which houses the CDC and other agencies, take part in a wide range of activities affected by climate change. It ranges from ensuring food safety to research formulating healthcare policy. Climate change and adaptation has become such a grave issue among the CDC that federal law has to be more incorporated for health disparities as well as a larger outlook on global warming. They begin with an assessment of recent and projected future climatic shift, considers how these shifts affect agency missions and operations, and then moves toward development of adaptation plan and a formalized institutional learning component.  CDC programs range from disaster preparedness to vector-borne and zoonotic disease programs to other programs addressing global health.

Each program seeks to identify populations most vulnerable to certain impacts, anticipate future trends, and assure systems are in place to detect and respond to emerging health threats, and take steps to assure that these health risks can be managed now and in the future. In my opinion, it seems like the government is actually taking human adaption to climate change into account globally. The interesting idea about this program projection and federal law efforts is the issue around disease. I’m fully aware that climate changes and other environmental factors contribute to disease, but with ongoing epidemic of Ebola, do you guys believe this executive order is reared more toward climate adaption, or public health, or both? This article was slightly misleading in my opinion, because of the executive order, the mention of disease, but not much information on direct contact with the human bodies throughout the U.S. and abroad. In other words, all these programs may sound intriguing, but when will they be implemented and to what extent?

J. Hess and J. Schramm. Public Health and Climate Change Adaptation at the Federal Level. American Journal of Public Health. march 2014, Vol 104, No. 3.