The body is a complex mechanism among both female and males. The growth of the human body depends on many factors including, the embryo stage, puberty, and physical activity among the growth years. In order for a body to progress/growth successfully, it must reach maturation biologically. This development promotes growth maturation for the remainder of one’s life in regards to future physical activity and performance. These activities dominate the daily lives of men and women. Based on the rate of growth in bones during embryonic development, the body will grow at the correct rate to produce a full body with full length bones. In the article entitled, “Top 10 Research Questions Related to Growth, Maturation, of Relevance to Physical Activity, Performance, and Fitness” Robert M. Malina explains the growth, body mass index, motor competence, peak height velocity, and tracking of infants, children, and adolescents. Adulthood will also be explained in correspondence to future maintenance of healthy bones and physical activity.
The cellular processes that underlie biological growth and maturation as well as other behavioral aspects cannot be measured directly; however, advances in technology are providing significant insights. Research and standardized tests have help to unpack growth in height, weight, and the stage of sexual maturity. Biologically, most girls are sexual mature by the age of 12 and boys by the age of 14. This maturity is solely biologically. Social maturity based on societal standards is reached by the age of 18 or 21. Height and weight are the body dimensions most commonly used to monitor growth. With age, children are expected to become taller and wider, unless otherwise deemed to be ineffective by disease. Such disease may alter the length of bones and their maturation. This in turn will also affect the physical activity and inactivity of adulthood. Trend in physical activity have been measured on boys and girls of the age 13 and 14. Researchers examined school sports, daily leisure, eating habits, and physical endurance. These performances explain the leading questions regarding growth, fat mass, BMI, and other measureable adipose tissue quantities.
Most recent surveys are based on moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA). The focus of the questions addressed is the amount and type of physical activity needed to bring about beneficial effects. Question 1: Is regular activity essential to support normal growth and maturation? For the most part, studies show that youth who regularly engage in physical activity seem to have less adiposity (skinfolds, percent fat) than do those engage in less activity; however, enhanced activity programs as in interventions appear to have minimal effect on adiposity in normal weight youth. Question 2: Is BMI the most appropriate metric for overweight and obesity in youth? Question 3: What is the implication of the “adiposity rebound” for subsequent weight status and physical activity? Question 4: What is the role of physical activity in the prevention of “unhealthy weight gain” during childhood and adolescence? Researchers believe early childhood and the transition into middle childhood may be important windows of opportunity for intervention to limit excess weight gain. Maintenance of smaller gains in BMI and FM through regular physical activity over time thus has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain as well. Question 5: Is there a critical level of movement proficiency that facilitates physical activity and sport participation in children and adolescents? Motor skills and movement proficiency do go hand in hand, however the transition between each child may be different. The remainder of the five questions continues to address physical activity and growth, but obesity becomes the center of exploration.
Malina M. R. "Top 10 Research Questions Related to Growth and Maturation of Relevance to Physical Activity, Performance, and Fitness. (2014). Research Quarterly of Exercise and Sport. 85.157-173.