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Raymond Pearl

"Raymond Pearl." Via Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Raymond_Pearl_o.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Raymond_Pearl_o.jpg
"Raymond Pearl." Via Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File: Raymond_Pearl _o.jpg#mediaviewer/ File:Raymond_Pearl_o.jpg

Raymond Pearl, Professor of Biology in the Medical School and in the School of Hygiene and Public Health of the Johns Hopkins University, died at Hershey, Pennsylvania, November 17, 1940, at the age of sixty-one years. At the age of 16 he entered Dartmouth College, expecting to make the classics his chief field of study. During his first year he was more interested in the opportunities for free activity than in his studies; a fact which was reflected in the low grades which he received. But in that first year biology was a required subject, and this opened his eyes to what became his main interest. He graduated from Dartmouth with the degree of A.B. in 1899. According to the Class Report before cited "Pearl was the youngest graduate in our class." During his senior year he was assistant in the course in general biology, of which the present writer was at that time in charge. He showed at that early period the masterful and competent personality that marked him throughout life.

In the fall of 1899, Pearl went to the University of Michigan, while for three years he was an assistant in Zoology while at work as a graduate student. He took part in the Biological Survey of Great Lakes, founded and led by the late Jacob Reighard working on variation in fishes (1900- 1902). He received in 1902 from the University of Michigan the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, at the age of twenty-three. From 1902-1906 he was a professor of Zoology at the University of Michigan. It was in the laboratory of the University of Michigan where he met Maud. M. De Witt, who became his wife. They were married in 1903, and upon his death bed she became managing editor of the journal “Human Biology”, and assistant editor of the ‘Quarterly Review of Biology”- the two journals founded and edited by Pearl. In the year of 1905-1906, Pearl he decided to enter the field of the application of statistical method of Biological problems with Karl Pearson at the University College, London. During the same visit to Europe he worked also at Leipzig and at the Marine Biological Station at Naples. Pearl returned to America in 1906, and was an instructor in Zoology at the University of Pennsylvania in 1906-1907. In 1907, he went to the University of Maine in Orono, as head of the department of Biology of the Maine Agriculture Experiment Station, remaining there until 1918. In 1918, Pearl was called at instance of Dr. William Welch, to become professor of Biometry and Vital Statistics in the newly found School of Hygiene and Public Health of John Hopkins University, where he spent the remainder of his educational career and training.

Before Pearl received his doctorate, he published a number of contributions. His dissertation was on the actions and behavior of Planarians. He next contributed a series of papers on genetic problems in lower organisms in which he worked with Karl Pearson in London. Also while in London, he finished and elaborated statistically a valuable piece of work on assortative mating in Protozoa. While at John Hopkins University, his interest in many subjects was so intense that at any given moment he might seem a partisan and propagandist of a particular method of biological science. Among the seven hundred and twelve titles (including seventeen books) in the list of Pearl’s writing hereto appended will be found contributions on the most varied fields of aspects biology or as human affairs as a division of biology. There are papers on animal behaviors, to Protozoa to man; on general physiology; many of various aspects of genetics (on abnormalities, variations on the breeding of Drosophila, of poultry, of cattle, of corn, of cantaloupes, on tongue colors in cattle, on the color hen’s eyes, etc.) There are many technical contributions on the care and breeding and fowls (fertility and diseases of fowls, plumage patterns, egg production, keep fowls free from lice, and folk-lore of hens’ eggs). Furthermore, many papers deal with the biology of man: papers on longevity and mortality, on the effects of alcohol and tobacco, on eugenics, and race culture, on the biology of superiority, the biology of death, infant mortality, and contraception.