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6

Thinking of office cubicles in the brain may help us imagine how dissociation might work & even be a great metaphor when we start suggesting that sometimes there is a jerky boss in our heads who comes out & barks at employees then cloisters himself away & a whole host of employees sitting in their cubicles with the various personalities that resemble aspects of ourselves that manifest under various circumstances. But this model doesn't really explain what dissociation is. Another way of viewing dissociation is simply as a psychological construct.  Dissociation isn't a specific thing, like love or stress are not specific things. A construct is something that exists in the mind but can't be localized to only one physical object. Dissociation is not the office walls or the computers in the cubicles or even the office flirt; it's the totality of everything & how information flows & is gated in the office of your brain. Dissociation is a concept. This means it can't be nailed down to any specific psychocultural behavior or affect or any neurological underpinnings.

This is important because we describe many different behaviors and activities as dissociative.  Shamanic spirit journeys are dissociative & supposedly involve leaving the corporeal body to commune with spirits on the astral plane (cue the Modern Lovers) or something.

Possession trance is dissociative but involves invading spirits displacing or pushing aside the self & memory of the experience (check out Maya Deren's classic Divine Horsemen).

Zoning out while playing video games may be dissociative if the house is falling down around you & you fail to notice. I used to joke that if Law & Order was on TV across the room, I could dissociate my wife talking to me & the kids fighting in between--I would not even notice them, transfixed as I was on the story-line of the show.

Dissociative Identity Disorder like that portrayed in Sybil or Three Faces of Eve or Fight Club or name-your-DID-movie portray people whose psyche is carved up; some of their "alters" know what other alters are up to, some don't. Intuitively, it would seem these states could not possibly harness the exact same neural hardware, but they do involve similar states of focused awareness, albeit for different reasons.

These are a few of the forms of dissociation that first caught my attention. Many people find the term "dissociation" confusing, &, I agree, it's one of those jargony terms that we could do without. But what other term would apply to all of these states? The obvious response to that, probably, is a question--why do we need one term to describe them all? On the one hand, these states are all historically particular--they are culturally relative & arise due to relatively unique ecological circumstances, as critics of ethological approaches like mine point out.

Spirit journeys, possession trance, DID, & extreme zoning do, however, share some psychological qualities; they partition aspects of awareness to filter, reduce, or moderate stress. So, rather than switch terms every time I discuss the cognitive mechanisms that filter, reduce, or moderate stress, I use the blanket term dissociation, which I picked up from reading Erica Bourguignon & she picked up from smarter people than me before her.

There are only two decent alternatives to the term dissociation that I can think of, both of which I do use, as I'll discuss in depth later, one of which is more straight forward, while the other is way more jargony. The term "trance" seems the obvious alternative, but I argue that it connotes an appearance & is best reserved for dissociative states that are visible to others. The other term, "deafferentation," is one of those cool words you invoke at parties to look like a bookish tool & really should be avoided but has such precise & flexible meaning with regard to neural systems that I feel it shouldn't be avoided under the circumstances.

The best way to understand a concept is to invoke an example. One type of cultural dissociation reputed to enable individuals to transcend the self that is particularly interesting to me is possession trance, & one purported form of possession trance takes place around speaking in tongues.  I say "purported" because speaking in tongues is not universally agreed upon as taking place in a trance state or dissociation, &, based on my observations, sometimes tongues are dissociative & sometimes they're not.  But it usually is, I believe, and its characteristic form--what I call the "excited Holy Ghost" type--almost certainly does.

If dissociation is necessary to limit the costs of self-awareness, as I suggested in Part 2, it is because these costs cause problems, are stressful, & therefore dissociation can be construed as an aspect of our allostatic stress response system.  Allostasis is homeostasis or equilibrium but through change. The concept of homeostasis got marred in misunderstanding, as some static state our body always strives to return to. We immediately recognize, however, when we think about the changes we must go through as we grow, age, become pregnant, modify our bodies through diet & exercise, among other normal habits, that there is no way our bodies could maintain one state throughout our lives. So homeostasis was reconceptualized as allostasis, which essentially means changing stability. The set-points at which things like stress response are triggered change as our bodies change. In theory, as I practice meditation & become more Zen (ha!), the threshold at which I lose my temper goes up, but there is a trigger, & once I've yelled at my kids & see they're sufficiently remorseful (again, ha!), my blood pressure drops back below the threshold & stops boiling. Yes, I am mixing metaphors, but I think it conveys the principle of allostasis.

Allostasis is a concept that is generally applied to stress physiology, but we could think of our behaviors that purposefully moderate dissociation as a "behavioral allostatic system." In other words, we have cultural practices that, whether we are conscious of it or not, moderate the threshold of our tempers & stress response. For my doctoral dissertation research, I suggested that speaking in tongues was a "behavioral homeostat." In stress physiology jargon, homeostats are the individual mechanisms of homeostasis, such as the hormones cortisol & epinephrine that increases blood pressure or the glucose that is released to increase energy. In this case, speaking in tongues is a behavioral homeostat because it is a mechanism that hypothetically moderates stress response. It plays a role in moderating awareness of stressors. While people are speaking in tongues, they are focused on God. In fact, according to practitioners, God has pushed them aside in their minds & is speaking through them. There literally is no room to think about anything else. If you're thinking about your bills, God won't come in. So, your worries are dissociated or partitioned from awareness at the moment you are speaking in tongues. Speaking in tongues itself is not the dissociation but what happens instead of the worry or the worldly thought or whatever; it is a mechanism or part of the system though not a direct mechanism.

This system is allostatic in that, I believe, practicing it leads to an increase in daily dissociation. By engaging in ritual dissociation, you train your body to raise the threshold of stress response. The set-point for freaking out on your kids (or whatever) is raised because you're more chill, more zazen. It's no different than exercising so you have more energy--you change the set-points for when you're exhausted & gasping for air & pooping out & having a heartache on your front lawn while mowing the grass.

Okay, so this is a nice theory & all (actually a hypothesis, but that's not the expression), but what about the data? To test this, in 2008-09 I compared the overall rates of speaking in tongues among participants in a couple Apostolic Pentecostal churches in New York to biomarkers of stress response using saliva samples collected across a day of worship and a day of non-worship.  I asked them how many times they'd spoken in tongues in their lifetime to get at that idea of practicing something to change the allostatic set-points. Then I divided the folks in my study into high-tongue speakers (21+ lifetime experiences--most had so many they were off the chart) & low-tongue speakers (0-20--most had never experienced tongues).

If we compare them using just the better understood stress hormone cortisol (I also analyzed alpha-amylase, about which we understand less, but you can read my analyses here and here), we found that high-tongue speakers had significantly higher cortisol across the worship day (suggesting they were more active during worship) & significantly lower cortisol during parts of the non-worship day (interpreted as being potentially less reactive to daily stressors).  This is consistent with studies of long-term meditators, whose cortisol levels indicate less daily stress reactivity (i.e., they are generally more chill).

So, based on one study of one religious group, culturally-mediated dissociation seems to influence stress. This needs to be followed up & replicated, which I'm in the process of doing (over a longer course of study this time), but religion is not the only behavioral allostatic system. What about all those religion haters out there who shout about their equal claims to relaxation? Okay, well, maybe they're making my point, but there are plenty of atheists, agnostics, gamers, & just plain non-religious-non-intellectual-about-the-whole-thing people out there doing yoga & aerobicizing & whatever to relax. Are they getting the same benefits from dissociation?

1

Introduction

This serial post will be about dissociation as transcendence & why both are apparently ubiquitous & simultaneously extremely psychosocially diverse.  I will make several functionalist claims, as follow:

  • Consciousness is costly
  • Dissociation is a basic function of consciousness
  • Dissociation defrays the costs of awareness
  • Transcendence is just another word for dissociation
  • Transcendence appears in diverse psychocultural forms not because of its primacy but because it is a baseline necessity
Pentecostal service in a "campo," in this case a carport, in Via de Mar, Moin, Costa Rica
Pentecostal service in a "campo," in this case a carport, in Via de Mar, Moin, Costa Rica

Transcendent experiences are those beyond the limits of ordinary experience (Beauregard 2011).  There are varieties of transcendent experiences moderated by personal, social, & cultural circumstances.  Personal circumstances can be psychological & biological &, of course, are not mutually exclusive of social & cultural influences but are directly influenced by & interact with them.  Therefore, we can study transcendence from a number of perspectives.  For instance, I study speaking in tongues & other religious behaviorfire-induced trance or transcendence influenced by “flickering light & sudden sound,” & self-deception or transcendence of self-awareness as an adaptation or unconscious mating strategy.

Fireside trance (Photo courtesy Heath Kinzer)
Fireside trance (Photo courtesy Heath Kinzer)

These studies are based on a cognitive science of religion model.  This approach holds that cognitive mechanisms related to religio-spiritual behavior are either adaptations for religious behavior or exaptations evolved to deal with general problems but uniquely invoked for religious purposes.  I tend toward the latter school of thought & follow cognitive anthropologist Harvey Whitehouse (2004) in imagining that religions develop, in a non-linear way, following the modes of religiosity: "catchy" concepts --> repetitive rituals --> convoluted doctrine.

Kobe Bryant was believed to be self-deceiving when he claimed Katelyn Faber's "no" really meant "yes"
Kobe Bryant was believed to be self-deceiving when he claimed Katelyn Faber's "no" really meant "yes"

Transcendent experiences tend to be rather catchy & get repetitively repeated.  Doctrine is much harder to grapple with, so many people never get past the 2nd mode (some never get past the first, as I lay out in "The Wrong Holy Ghost").  Transcendence and thus “consciousness” are ecologically relative, which is a super-important point.  "Consciousness" I define as a combination of self- and other-awareness, but the dimensions of self & the others one is aware of are also relative.  This is why, even within religion, which is too often referred to monolithically as Religion with a capital "R," diversity is critical to ecological flexibility & stability.

Just as natural environments consist of many ecological niches that require different strategies of survival and reproduction, so too should different social environments foster different cultural and religious system.  In other words, we postulate that environments of stability, security, and wealth will cause a different form of religiosity to thrive--that is, liberal religion. (Storm & Wilson 2009)

This, therefore, is the perspective we take in the Religious Ecology Study, which examines group-level commitment behavior and success, based on a model proposed by biologist David Sloan Wilson in Darwin's Cathedral (2010). The main criterion for inclusion in the study is that a group fulfill anthropologist Barbara King's (2007) model of spiritual inclusion, which means that they inculcate a sense of “belongingness” among members. I have conducted such research among several Pentecostal church groups in New York, Tuscaloosa, and Costa Rica; and students in an Honors course I teach and in my research group have conducted research among video game communities (ABXY) and extremely liberal churches (e.g., Unitarian Universalist) and observed groups that defy traditional categorization (Temple of Divine Reality).

These are various outputs of the Religious Ecology Study [REST] (or, as I've taken to calling it lately because some student groups prefer to study secular groups, the Belongingness Ecology Study Tuscaloosa [BEST]). Clockwise from left are the checklist from the REST workbook, attendance at group meetings as an indication of commitment signaling in a video game club, a map drawn of a unique "school" one group of students unofficially observed, & a graph indicating the relationship among types of commitment & previous religious experience among a local Unitarian Universalist congregation.
These are various outputs of the Religious Ecology Study [REST] (or, as I've taken to calling it lately because some student groups prefer to study secular groups, the Belongingness Ecology Study Tuscaloosa [BEST]). Clockwise from left are the checklist from the REST workbook, attendance at group meetings as an indication of commitment signaling in a video game club, a map drawn of a unique "school" one group of students unofficially observed, & a graph indicating the relationship among types of commitment & previous religious experience among a local Unitarian Universalist congregation.
Thus far, the common thread among cooperatively successful groups is some transcendence of self in supporting the group. And, ironically, among groups less successful in sustaining cooperation, we observed other forms of systemic psychological transcendence that did not rely on group participation (e.g., the video gamer club).

The working hypothesis of this model, therefore, is that transcendence functionally limits consciousness. This can be demonstrated psychologically, phenomenologically, and neurologically. Evolved functional limitations of consciousness are exapted and superstimulated as part of ritual religious structures and behaviors.