This article doesn’t exactly relate to my topic, but it deals with stress and social support for those in a minority group. I had some reservations about using this article, because negative social effects of being a vegan are hardly comparable to the struggles faced by the LGBTQ community. Once I read another one of my articles, I was able to find a connection between familial support that, while it is not quite the same, it can be compared as both groups can rejected by their families.
I found this interesting because it discovered that close, familial support meant more in reducing stress levels than peer support or overall satisfaction with the support.
This has slight implications in how social support for vegans might differ from non-vegans.
Burton, C. L., Bonanno, G. A., & Hatzenbuehler, M. L. (2014). Familial social support predicts a reduced cortisol response to stress in sexual minority young adults. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 47(0), 241-245. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.05.013
I knew I wanted to use the BMIS, I just needed to know what it was exactly. The BMIS uses series of adjectives such as “happy” and “sad” to provide a better quantitative measure of overall mood that the PSS. I used this in my proposal to determine the overall moods of vegans and non-vegans.
Mayer, J. D., & Gaschke, Y. N. (1988). The experience and meta-experience of mood. Journal of personality and social psychology, 55(1), 102.
I used an excerpt from this book to learn about chemiluminescent assays for cortisol. It had easy to follow steps and some great pictures. Basically, serum samples are treated with certain proteins and enzymes that bind to cortisol and that cause it to break away from plasma proteins. Then an electrode is inserted into the sample and a charge is run through it. The brighter the chemiluminescence, the less cortisol is in the same
Nussey, S. S., & Whitehead, S. A. (2001). Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach. United Kingdom: Bios Scientific Publ
I noticed another blog post about the PSS, and I’m not surprised but it may be the greatest tool.
The perceived stress scale (PSS) has been shown to provide significant representation of stress individuals, while providing quantitative data to researchers. This is super useful in my proposal, as provides a more cultural perception of stress, rather than just a blood or saliva biomarker.
Cohen, Sheldon, Kamarck, Tom., Mermelstein, Robin. 1983 A Global Measure of Perceived Stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 24(4):385-396
Since salivary cortisol measurements are such an important part of my research proposal I tried to find multiple sources to get an idea of methodology. This study used salivary cortisol to test the stress levels in students who had lost a parent and perceived their surviving parent to be more or less caring. Those that had a parent they perceived as less caring had higher salivary cortisol levels after doing something stressful than those with a more caring parent. I thought this study was interesting and maybe slightly helpful when designing my methods section.
Luecken, L. J. (2000). Parental caring and loss during childhood and adult cortisol responses to stress. Psychology and Health, 15(6), 841-851.
I will be using galvanic skin response as part of my data collection for my research and found one article particularly helpful. It detailed both methods and materials. They were simply interested in testing whether they could detect stress through GSR but that is all I really need for my purposes as well so it was useful to me. I would recommend this for someone interested in using GSR.
Villarejo, M. V., Zapirain, B. G., & Zorrilla, A. M. (2012). A stress sensor based on Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) controlled by ZigBee. Sensors, 12(5), 6075-6101.
I found the article by Doran and Downing Hansen (2006) “Constructions of Mexican American Family Grief After the Death of a Child: An Exploratory Study” to be very interesting as it a more relevant ethnographic overview of grieving practices than I had read anywhere else. Although the people in the study were Mexican-American and not the population I intend to study they do belong to the same religious group and therefore follow some of the same or similar religious customs when it comes to grieving. The article mostly covered how the families dealt with their grief including incorporating their faith, Catholicism, into the process. For many Mexican Americans this includes the novenario, a nine day period of mourning and prayer, similar to what I would like to study with the rosary service but not the same. The entire article reminded me the grieving process differs depending on religious and cultural context. The individual’s grieving experience may differ depending on how important they believe those things are in the grieving process.
The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) will be utilized because the population sample will most likely be older adults, the format is simple, the scoring is in sub-sections and overall, and it suits the research topic and sample well. In their article “Impact of Event Scale-Revised” Christianson and Marren explain why the IES-R is better suited for an older population than the IES although the Impact of Event Scale is also a good test. Their article also gives an example format of the test and how to score it which is helpful.
For my research proposal I will be using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised as one of my measures to understand psychological stress in the bereaved. In the research paper by Pennebaker, Mayne, and Francis (1997) “Linguistic Predictors of Adaptive Bereavement” the Impact of Event Scale is just one of the measurements used to understand grief in people who have lost their partners to HIV/AIDS. The scale helps to understand how a recent relatively traumatic event is affecting an individual’s day to day functioning in their everyday life, emotions, and thoughts.
Note to self: there are some confounding variables out there that might activate HPAA. Still, Hellhammer et al. (2008) stands behind the usefulness of salivary cortisol as a biomarker for stress. The picture is just a bit more complex than we previously thought. Hm. That never happens.