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Kay RF. 1985. Dental evidence for the diet of Australopithecus. Annual Review of Anthropology, 14:315-341.
no abstract...

Wynn T. 1985. Piaget, stone tools and the evolution of human intelligence. World Archaeology, 17:32-43.
Archaeology can be used to study the evolution of human intelligence but to do so archaeologists must employ well established theories of intelligence. Piagetian theory is especially useful because it is evolutionary in scope and, just as important, can be used to analyze stone tools, the most abundant residue of prehistoric behavior. Using Piagetian method to analyze artefact geometries, the author has been able to assess the intelligence of two groups of early hominids. Oldowan tools required ...

Cheney D, Seyfarth R, Smuts B.. 1986. Social Relationships and Social Cognition in Nonhuman Primates. Science, 234:1361-1366.
Complex social relationships among nonhuman primates appear to contribute to individual reproductive success. Experiments with and behavioral observations of natural populations suggest that sophisticated cognitive mechanisms may underlie primate social relationships. Similar capacities are usually less apparent in the nonsocial realm, supporting the view that at least some aspects of primate intelligence evolved to solve the challenges of interacting with conspecifics....

McHenry, H. M.. 1991. Petite Bodies of the 'Robust' Australopithecines. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 86:445-454.
The 'robust' australopithecines are often depicted as having large and powerfully built bodies to match their massive masticatory apparatus, but until 1988 the sample of postcranial remains attributed with certainty to this group was very limited. Almost nothing was known about the body of the East African 'robust' australopithecine because taxonomic attribution of the postcrania was so uncertain. The body of the South African 'robust' australopithecine had to be reconstructed from about a dozen...

Pardoe, Colin. 1991. Isolation and Evolution in Tasmania. Current Anthropology, 32:1-21.
Both skeletal and material archaeological studies comparing Tasmania with mainland Australia have shown remarkable diversity of results in regards to similarity and difference. Morphological variation as measured by proportions of non-metric cranial traits exemplifies this dilemma. An isolation-by-distance analysis in which the relation of morphological and geographic distance explains 50% of the variation demonstrates that a method of formal expectations will produce results both conciliatory a...

Byrne RW, Whiten A. 1992. Cognitive Evolution in Primates: Evidence from Tactical Deception. Man, 27(3):609-627.
Through the compilation of an extensive catalogue of tactical deception in non-human primates, incorporating evidence contributed by many primatologists and covering all major taxa, it has become feasible to initiate quantitative comparisons between taxa, having adjusted for variations in the extent to which they have been studied. Papio and (especially) Pan show disproportionately high levels of tactical deception, whereas strepsirhines have not yielded any evidence of deception at all. Some re...

Hewes, Gordon W.. 1992. Primate Communication and the Gestural Origin of Language. Current Anthropology, 33:65-85.
No Abstract....

Singh RB, Mori H. 1992. Nutritional adaptation and risk factors for coronary heart disease. Journal of Nutritional Medicine, 3:311-318.
Investigates the relationship between nutritional adaptation and risk factors for coronary heart disease. Risk factors and life-style changes, Risk factors for coronary disease and nutrition in immigrants as an example, Nutritional adaptation, Major risk factors as adaptive responses, Modulation of risk factors....

Doran, D.M.. 1993. Comparative Locomotor Behavior of Chimpanzees and Bonobos: The Influence of Morphology on Locomotion. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 91:83-98.
No Abstract....

Gatenbein D.. 1993. The High Life. Discover, 14:pp. 114-12.
Examines the possibility of genetic adaptation to high altitudes in the Himalayan Sherpas. Acute mountain sickness, High-altitude pulmonary edema and cerebral edema, Acclimatization of the human body, Racial controversy in altitude research, Lactate paradox, Preeclampsia, Subacute infantile mountain sickness, Elusive proof of development of genetic traits....

Gould JS. 1994. Lucy on the Earth in stasis. Natural History, 103:12-18.
Focuses on the biological evolution of hominids. Analysis of dualities, Assumptions about the character of change, Conflict between change as continuous and steady versus rapid and episodic, Persistence of stasis in Australopithecus afarensis...

Heyes, CM. 1994. Reflections on self-recognition in primates. Animal Behavior, 47:909-919.
Evidence that apes touch head marks more in the presence of a mirror that in its absence have been taken to indicate that, unlike monkeys, they are capable of self-recognition and have a self-concept. Both of these conclusions are challenged. First, variance in mark-touching may be due, not to mirror-presence, but to the effects of anaesthetic recovery on species with a high baseline frequency of self-directed behavior. Second, evidence of species differences in mirror-guided body inspection cou...

Suwa, Gen, Wood, Bernard A., and White, Tim D.. 1994. Further Analysis of Mandibular Molar Crown and Cusp Areas in Pliocene and Early Pleistocene Hominids. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 93:407-426.
Crown and cusp areas of mandibular molars were measured and analyzed on a sample of 249 specimens attributed to Australopithecus afarensis, A. africanus, A. (Paranthropus) robustus, A. (P.) boisei, and early Homo. In addition to intertaxon comparisons, we compared data that had been collected independently by two of the authors using methods that differ slightly in technique of measurement. Interobserver differences were evaluated by the t-test of paired comparisons, method error statistic, perc...

Benefit, BR, McCrossin ML. 1995. Miocene Hominoids And Hominid Origins. Annual Review of Anthropology, 24:237-56.
Recent discoveries have greatly clarified the family tree relationships of Miocene apes to modern apes and humans. Contrary to most previous interpretations, new fossil evidence indicates that well-known middle-late Miocene large-bodied apes such as Kenyapithecus, Sivapithecus, and Dryopithecus branched off before the ancestor that gave rise to all living hominoids, therefore, these extinct are not members of the great ape and human grouping. Jaw and tooth features that Miocene large-bodied apes...

Black, Harvey. 1995. Female Pecking order and Fertility. Bioscience, 45:583-587.
Describes the peculiarity of the New World monkeys which are the only ones amongst primates in having a single breeding female in a troop. Reasons behind the maintenance of the arrangement in the Callitrichidae primate family, Findings of the researches at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the...

Conroy GC, Kuykendall K. 1995. Paleopediatrics: or when did human infants really become human? American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 98:121-131.
Modern human children take about twice as long as their closest biological relative, the chimpanzee, to mature. One standard explanation for the evolution of 'delayed maturation' at an early stage of human evolution is that it provided the time necessary for immature individuals to learn complex skills, most notably those relating to tool-making abilities. However, after comparing dental maturational profiles of early homonids from South Africa (who apparently did make and use stone tools) (Susm...

Kittles R. 1995. Nature, Origin, and Variation of Human Pigmentation. Journal of Black Studies, 26(1):36-61.
No abstract...

Lieberman, L, Jackson, F.. 1995. Race and Three Models of Human Origin. American Anthropologist, 97:231-239.
The future of the race concept depends in part upon the interpretations made of the molecular, biochemical, and anatomical evidence for the recent origins of Homo sapiens. Evidence of the decline of the concept among physical anthropology professors and in texts and research publications is presented, along with four reasons for the change. Three models regarding recent human origins are reviewed, each of which uses race as a descriptive term for a population aggregate. Each model carries impli...

Ross, Callum, Henneberg, Macie J.. 1995. Basicranial Flexion, Relative Brain Size and Facial Kyphosis in Homo sapiens and Some Fossil Hominids. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 98:575-593.
Comparative work among nonhominid primates has demonstrated that the basicranium becomes more flexed with increasing brain size relative to basicranial length and as the upper and lower face become more ventrally deflected (Ross and Ravosa [1993] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 91:305-324). In order to determine whether modern humans and fossil hominids follow these trends, the cranial base angle (measure of basicranial flexion), angle of facial kyphosis, and angle of orbital axis orientation were meas...

Rumbaugh, Duane. 1995. Primate language and cognition: common ground. (In the Company of Animals). Social Research, 62:711-730.
No Abstract....

Simons, Elwyn L.. 1995. Skulls and anterior teeth of Catopithecus (Primates: Anthropoidea) from the Eocene and anthropoid origins. Science, 268:268.
Recent finds of Catopithecus browni at an upper Eocene fossil site in the Fayum depression, Egypt, reveal features of the earliest higher primates. This basal anthropoidean shows a set of derived cranial and dental features that first occur in combination in this fossil. Old World Anthropoidea or Catarrhini can now be traced back to Catopithecus in Egypt. Size, shape, orientation of incisors and canines, and other features of the teeth and skull relate Catopithecus both to later Anthropoidea and...

Beard, K. Christopher, Tong, Yongsheng, Dawson, Mary R., Wang, Jingwen, Huang, Xueshi.. 1996. Earliest complete dentition of an anthropoid primate from the Late Middle Eocene of Shanxi Province, China. Science, 272:82-84.
No Abstract....

Bieber H, Bieber SW, Rodewald A, Barrantes R. 1996. Microevolution and Genetic Affinities among Six Amerindian Tribes of Lower Central America: Comparative Genetic Study of Serum Proteins. Human Biology, 68:929-953.
We evaluate the pattern of genetic variation among the native Mesoamerican Amerindians by the construction of a gene frequency map that reflects the past action of evolutionary forces. The analysis is based on the theory that genes of modern human populations carry the encoded history of even humans' remote past and their early wanderings around the globe. We examined the serum proteins TF, PI, F13B and AHSG on 491 samples of 6 Mesoamerican Amerindian tribes (Guaymi, Bribri, Cabecar, Teribe, Gua...

Binford LR, NM Stone. 1996. Zhoukoudian: A closer look. Current Anthropology, 27:453-475.
Binford and Stone reexamine the faunal remains of the Pleistocene hominid site Zhoukoudian. It has been suggested by earlier researchers that Zhoukoudian faunal remains illustrate evidence of hunting by Pleistocene hominids. They authors compare the faunal assemblage from Zhoukoudian with contemporary hominid sites in Europe and Africa, as well with modern hunting sites and animal dens to determine if the earlier claims of hunting are founded....

Fuller, K.. 1996. Analysis of the Probability of Multiple Taxa in a Combined Sample of Swartkrans and Kromdraai Dental Material. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 101:429-439.
no abstract...

Gray SJ. 1996. Ecology of weaning among nomadic Turkana pastoralists of Kenya: maternal thinking, maternal behavior, and human adaptive strategies. Human Biology, 68:437-466.
Weaning of human children is a complex process involving the introduction on non-breast milk foods, reduction in suckling activity, and eventual termination of breast feeding. Because the choice of strategies for each component of the weaning process depends on the operating environmental constraints, reproductive demands on women, and prevailing levels of infant and weanling mortality, it is appropriate to examine weaning practices as human adaptive strategies. Here, I examine the structure of ...

Hunt KD. 1996. The postural feeding hypothesis: an ecological model for the evolution of bipedalism. South African Journal of Science, 92:77-90.
Discusses a postural feeding hypothesis consistent with both chimpanzee behavior and australopithecine anatomy as an ecological model for the evolution of bipedalism. Chimpanzee anatomy and specializations, Anatomical adaptations to vertical climbing, Australopithecine anatomy, Bipedal postural feeding hypothesis...

Larick, Roy, Ciochon, Russell L.. 1996. The African emergence and dispersal of the genus Homo. American Scientist, 84:538-552.
Recently discovered Homo fossils and simple stone tools in East Asia show that the dispersal of the early Homo from Africa to south and East Asia occurred about one million years earlier than previously estimated. It is shown that the striding gait, simple stone tools and scavenging patterns of the Homo encouraged its dispersal while later Homo populations colonized more temperate habitats under more complex conditions....

Marks, J. 1996. Science and Race: Multiculturalism and diversity in higher education. American Behavioral Scientist, 40:123-134.
The scientific study of biological variation has consistently produced knowledge that contradicts widespread popular, or folk, wisdom. Although people and the populations they belong to certainly differ from one another, they do not appear to do so in such a manner that permits the identification of a small number of human species or races. Classification of people into races involves cultural, not biological, knowledge, and race is inherited according to cultural rules that stand in opposition ...

Rose L, and Marshall, F. 1996. Meat eating, hominid sociality, and home bases revisited. Current Anthropology, 37(2):307-338.
We address the interpretation of Plio/Pleistocene hominid 'home-base' sites in East Africa by integrating data from archaeology, primatology, and carnivore biology. Revisionist views of Plio/Pleistocene sites have emphasized the limited capacities of early hominids and the danger posed by large carnivores. We argue that flight and avoidance were not the most likely strategies for meat-eating hominids facing competition and increased risk of predation. Instead, we suggest, these pressures promote...

Sawchuck LA. 1996. Rainfall, Patio Living, and Crisis-Mortality in a Small-Scale Society: The Benefits of a Tradition of Scarcity? Current Anthropology, 37(5):863-867.
no abstract...

Singer M. 1996. Farewell to adaptationism: unnatural selection and the politics of biology. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 10:496-515.
This article argues that human adaptation has lost its utility as a conceptual tool for either biological or medical anthropology, despite the recent efforts of practitioners in these subdisciplines to rescue it by considering the influences of power, history, and global social processes. It draws on cases from diverse fields, including evolutionary studies, ethology, genetics, and epidemiology, to suggest new ways of conceptualizing the relationship between humans and their physical and biotic ...

Swisher III, C.C., Rink, S.C., Anton, S.C., Schwarcz, H. P., Curtis, G.H., Widiasmoro, Suprijo. 1996. Latest Homo erectus of Java: potential contemporaneity with Homo sapiens in Southeast Asia. Science, 274:1870-1875.
Hominid fossils from Ngandong and Sambungmacan, Central Java, are considered the most morphologically advanced representatives of Homo erectus. Electron spin resonance (ESR) and mass spectrometric U-series dating of fossil bovid teeth collected from the hominid-bearing levels at these sites gave mean ages of 27 [+ or -] 2 to 53.3 [+ or -] 4 thousand years ago, the range in ages reflects uncertainties in uranium migration histories. These ages are 20,000 to 400,000 years younger than previous ag...

Teaford, M. F., Maas, M.C., Simons, E.L.. 1996. Dental Microwear and Microstructure in Early Oligocene Primates From the Fayum, Egypt: Implications for Diet. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 101:527-543.
No Abstract....

Fox CL, Garcia-Moro C, Hernandez M.. 1997. Fueguian cranial morphology: the adaptation to a cold, harsh environment. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 103:103-117.
Craniometric data from the three extinct tribes that inhabited Tierra del Fuego (Selk'nam, Yamana, and Kawaskar) were gathered following Howells's measurement technique. We studied 180 skulls preserved at thirteen different institutions. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) between groups showed that morphological similarities among Fueguian groups are far more important than some differences between marine (Yamana and Kawaskar) and terrestrial (Selk'nam) groups. A principal component analysis (PCA) gen...

Hill, Jack. 1997. Biology and socioculture in human evolution. Journal of Social & Evolutionary Systems, 20:157-171.
The ultimate evolutionary effect of an individual organism is the number of its descendants: it is argued here that. unlike other species. humans can have sociocultural as well as biological descendants, so that sociocultural factors. especially prestige. are just as important as biological ones in human evolution. Both types of factor work together in the developmental system associated with each human organism in a continuous interaction between phenotype and surround. It is demonstrated that ...

Holden H and Mace R. 1997. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Evolution of Lactose Digestion in Adults. Human Biology, 69(5):605-628.
In most of the world's population the ability to digest lactose declines sharply after infancy. High lactose digestion capacity in adults is common only in populations of European and circum-Mediterranean origin and is thought to be an evolutionary adaptation to millennia of drinking milk from domestic livestock. Milk can also be consumed in a processed form, such as cheese or soured milk, which has a reduced lactose content. Two other selective pressures for drinking fresh milk with a high lact...

John H. Relethford. 1997. Hemispheric difference in human skin color. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 104:449-457.
Previous studies of human skin color have shown a strong relationship between skin color and distance from the equator, which has been interpreted as a link between skin color, latitude, and the intensity of ultraviolet radiation. The underlying assumptions are that UV radiation is greatest at the equator and that it diminishes with increasing latitude to the same extent in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The standard analysis of human skin color is based on these assumptions, such t...

Meldrum, D.J., Kay, R.F.. 1997. Nuciruptor rubricae, a New Pitheciin Seed Predator From the Miocene of Columbia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 102:407-427.
No Abstract....

Nahm, Frederick K.D., Perret, Amelie, Amaral, David G., Albright, Thomas D.. 1997. How Do Monkeys Look at Faces? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 9:611-613.
No Abstract....

Poloni ES, Semino O, Passarino G, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Dupanloup I, Langaney A, Excoffier L. 1997. Human genetic affinities for Y-chromosome P49a,f/TaqI haplotypes show strong correspondence with linguistics. American Journal of Human Genetics, 61:1015-1035.
Numerous population samples from around the world have been tested for Y chromosome specific p49a,f/TaqI restriction polymorphisms. Here we review the literature as well as unpublished data on Y-chromosome p49a,f/TaqI haplotypes and provide a new nomenclature unifying the notations used by different laboratories. We use this large data set to study worldwide genetic variability of human populations for this paternally transmitted chromosome segment. We observe, for the Y chromosome, an important...

Thierry, Bernard, Gage, Jennifer Curtis. 1997. Adaptation and self-organization in primate societies. Diogenes, 180:33-72.
No Abstract....

Blom DE, Hallgrimsson B, Keng L, Lozado MC, and Buikstra JE. 1998. Tiwanaku 'Colonization': bioarchaeological implications for migration in the Moquegua Valley, Peru. World Archaeology, 30:238-261.
Nothing is more central to theories of pre-hispanic Andean state formation than the relationship between highland core areas and ecologically-distinct peripheral regions. Various models, ranging from direct colonization to trade relations have been proposed and are usually grounded in architectural and material cultural patterning. We examine the human biological implications of colonization from the perspective of Tiwanaku, primarily during the expansive Tiwanaku IV and V periods (c. AD 500-100...

Christensen AF. 1998. Colonization and Microevolution in the Formative Oaxaca, Mexico. World Archaeology, 30:262-285.
Linguistic evidence indicates that the Zapotecan languages spread from the Central Valleys of Oaxaca to the southwest during the Middle and Late Formative (800 BC-AD 250), and to the north and east during the Classic and Postclassic (AD 250-1521). The archaeological record of the lower Rio Verde Valley, on the western coast of Oaxaca, supports this model of linguistic differentiation. The earliest significant settlement in the valley dates to the late Middle Formative, and this population probab...

Katzmarzyk PT, Leonard WR. 1998. Climatic Influences on Human Body Size and Proportions: Ecological Adaptations and Secular Trends. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 106:483-503.
This study reevaluates the long-standing observation that human morphology varies with climate. Data on body mass, the body mass index [BMI, mass (kg)/stature (m)2}, the surface area/body mass ratio, and relative sitting height were obtained for 223 male samples and 195 female samples derived from studies published since D.F. Roberts' land mark paper 'Body weight, races, and climate' in 1953 (Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 11:533-558). Current analyses indicates that body mass varies inversely with mea...

Leakey MG, Feibel CS, McDougall I, Ward C, and Walker A. 1998. New specimens and confirmation of an early age for Australopithecus anamensis. Nature, 393:62-67.
The discovery of Australopithecus anamensis fossils from strata lying between tephra dated at 4.17 and 4.12 million years ago, and from slightly higher strata not well constrained in age by overlying dated units, provoked the claim that more than one species might be represented: it was suggested that the stratigraphically higher fossils, which include the important tibia, humerus, and a large, presumed male, mandible (KNM-KP 29287), might belong to a later, more derived hominid. We have recover...

Panger MA. 1998. Object-Use in Free-Ranging White-Faced Capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 106:(311-321).
'Presents a study which examined the rates of tool-use of chimpanzees and capuchins with other non-human primates. Comparison of the varieties of tool used demonstrated, Examination of the types, rates and contexts of tool- and object-use in free-ranging capuchins, Analysis of the data collected, Techniques used to collect the data....

Peter T. Katzmarzyk1, William R. Leonard2. 1998. Climatic influences on human body size and proportions: Ecological adaptations and secular trends. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 106:483-503.
This study reevaluates the long-standing observation that human morphology varies with climate. Data on body mass, the body mass index [BMI, mass (kg)/stature (m)2], the surface area/body mass ratio, and relative sitting height (RSH, sitting height/stature) were obtained for 223 male samples and 195 female samples derived from studies published since D.F. Roberts' landmark paper 'Body weight, race, and climate' in 1953 (Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 11:533-558). Current analyses indicate that body mas...

Rasmussen, D. Tab, Conroy, Glenn C., Simons, Elwyn L.. 1998. Tarsier-like locomotor specializations in the Oligocene primate Afrotarsius. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, 95:14848-1485.
Tarsiers and extinct tarsier-like primates have played a central role in views of primate phylogeny and evolution for more than a century. Because of the importance of tarsiers in so many primatological problems, there has been particular interest in questions about the origin of tarsier specializations and the biogeography of early tarsioid radiations. We report on a new fossil of rare Afrotarsius that shows near identity to modern Tarsius in unique specializations of the leg, which provides in...

Standford CB. 1998. The Social Behavior of Chimpanzees and Bonobos: Empirical evidnce and shifting assumptions. Current Anthropology, 39:399-420.
As our closest living relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos have been widely used as models of behavior of early hominids. In recent years, as information on the social behavior and ecology of bonobos has come to light, many interspecific comparisons have been made. Chimpanzees have been characterized in terms of their intercommunity warfare, meat eating, infanticide, cannibalism, male status-striving, and dominance over females. Bonobos, meanwhile, have been portrayed as the 'Make love, not war' a...

Tague RG & Lovejoy CO. 1998. AL 288-1 - Lucy or Lucifer: gender confusion in the Pliocene. Journal of Human Evolution, 35:75-94.
Hausler & Schmid (1995) challenged the long held opinion that AL 288-1 (Australopithecus afarensis) popularly known as 'Lucy' was female. They conclude that AL 288-1 was probably male ('Lucifer') and, by extension, the hypodigm for A. afarensis consists of two species which differ from one another in body size, in their opinion, AL 288-1 was probably a male of the smaller of the two species. Hausler & Schmid based their conclusion on an obstetric analysis of AL 288-1 and Sts 14 (A. Africanus) an...

Tardieu, Christine. 1998. Short Adolescence in Early Hominids: Infantile and Adolescent Growth of the Human Femur. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 107:163-178.
Did the first hominids have a short developmental period similar to that of the great apes or a longer period closer to that of modern humans? Evidence from studies on dental and facial growth favors the first point of view. Additional evidence presented in this report is provided by a morphogenetic analysis of the lower limb. Some morphological modifications undergone by the human femur during infantile and adolescent growth are shown to be excellent markers of different developmental stages. ...

Tobias, P. V.. 1998. Ape-like australipithecus after sevetny years: was it a hominid? Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 4:283-308.
Discusses the history of diverse judgments on the evolutionary status and affinities of Australopithecus africanus (A. africanus). Review of the primitive traits that A. africanus carry, History on the birth of A. africanus, Details on the findings on the classification of A. africanus....

Van Peer, P. 1998. The Nile Corridor and the Out-of-Africa model: an examination of the archaeological record. Current Anthropology, 39:S115-S140.
...

Wood, B., Aiello, L.C.. 1998. Taxonomic and Functional Implications of Mandibular Scaling in Early Hominins. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 105:523-538.
Tarsiers and extinct tarsier-like primates have played a central role in views of primate phylogeny and evolution for more than a century. Because of the importance of tarsiers in so many primatological problems, there has been particular interest in questions about the origin of tarsier specializations and the biogeography of early tarsioid radiations. We report on a new fossil of rare Afrotarsius that shows near identity to modern Tarsius in unique specializations of the leg, which provides in...

Anton SC. 1999. Cranial growth in Homo erectus: how credible are the Ngandong juveniles? American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 108:223-236.
Confusion exists regarding the developmental ages of numerous Asian and southeast Asian Homo erectus fossils because of Weidenreich’s contention that Pithecanthropus fused its sutures prematurely relative to H. sapiens. I reevaluate the cranial developmental ages of the Ngandong ‘‘juveniles’’ (2, 5, 8, 9) based on a series of indicators of youth (superstructure development, suture development/fusion, and cranial thickness) and cranial contours. The Ngandong juveniles are compared with H. s...

Anton, S.C.. 1999. Cranial growth in Homo erectus: how credible are the Ngandong juveniles? American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 108:223 - 236.
Confusion exists regarding the developmental ages of numerous Asian and southeast Asian Homo erectus fossils because of Weidenreich's contention that Pithecanthropus fused its sutures prematurely relative to H. sapiens. I reevaluate the cranial developmental ages of the Ngandong 'juveniles' (2, 5, 8, 9) based on a series of indicators of youth (superstructure development, suture development/fusion, and cranial thickness) and cranial contours. The Ngandong juveniles are compared with H. sapiens ...

Asfaw, Berhane, White, Tim, Lovejoy, Owen, Latimer, Bruce, Simpson, Scott, Suwa, Gen. 1999. Australopithecus garhi: A New Species of Early Hominid from Ethiopia. Science, 284:629-638.
The lack of an adequate hominid fossil record in eastern Africa between 2 and 3 million years ago (Ma) has hampered investigations of early hominid phylogeny. Discovery of 2.5 Ma hominid cranial and dental remains from the Hata beds of Ethiopia's Middle Awash allows recognition of a new species of Australopithecus. This species is descended from Australopithecus afarensis and is a candidate ancestor for early Homo. Contemporary postcranial remains feature a derived humanlike humeral/femoral rati...

Azbel' MA. 1999. Biological grand universality and its physical challenge. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 273:486-494.
Presented quantitative laws of metabolism, mortality and evolution are valid for animals from bacteria to mammals and demonstrate grand universality in biology. Its microscopic origin may be a physical and mathematical challenge. Natural evolution is accurately reduced to the continuous one, 'weak' and 'strong' Gould-Eldredge spurts. The discovery of writing, i.e. non-genetic, long range, collective information transfer from generation to generation with human rather than natural selection, lead...

Bradley Brenda. 1999. Levels of Selection, Altruism, and Primate Behavior. Quarterly Review of Biology, 74:171-194.
No Abstract....

Buckser, A. 1999. Keeping kosher: eating and social identity among the Jews of Denmark Ethnology, 38:191-209.
Anthropologists have frequently noted the importance of foodways in demarcating ethnic and other group identities. The destabilization of such identities in late modernity implies deep changes in the meaning of ethnic cuisines. This essay explores the impact of such changes on the meaning of kosher practices among Jews in Copenhagen. A close engagement with Danish culture has made Jewishness increasingly difficult to define since the Second World War; Jewish ethnicity has become a contingent asp...

Clegg M and Aiello LC. 1999. A comparison of the Narikotome Homo Erectus with juveniles from a modern populations. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 110:81-93.
The Nariokotome Homo erectus has an apparent disjunction of inferred age as judged by dental maturity, by epiphyseal closure and by stature, when compared to modern human norms. On the basis, it has been suggested that this fossil hominin differed in its pattern of growth and development from modern humans. In particular, the characteristic human adolescent growth spurt may not yet have been present, and in the sense H. erectus growth would be more ape-like than human-like. This study tests this...

Crooks DL. 1999. Child growth and nutritional status in a high-poverty community in eastern Kentucky. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 109:129-142.
The research reported in this paper examines the relationship between household socioeconomic measures, child growth, and nutritional status in a community in eastern Kentucky with a high rate of poverty. It is based on the premise that child growth and nutritional status reflect the social circumstances in which they occur. 21.6% of the children exhibited low height (,15th percentile of National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] reference values), with 13% of the girls exhibiting stunti...

Frisancho A, Juliao P, Barcelona V, Kudyba C, Amayo G, Davenport G, Knowles A, Sanchez D, Villena M, Vargas E, Soria R. 1999. Developmental components of resting ventilation among high-and low-altitude Andean children and adults. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 109:295-301.
This paper evaluates the age-associated changes of resting ventilation of 115 high-and low-altitude Aymara subjects, of whom 61 were from rural Aymara village of vfentilla situated at an average altitude of 4,200 m and 54 from the rural village of Caranavi situated at an average altitude of 900 m. Comparsion of the age patterns of resting ventilation suggests that following conclusins: 1) the resting ventilation (ml/kg/min) of high-altitude natives is markedly higher than that of low-altitude na...

Gat, A. 1999. Social Organization, Group Conflict and the Demise of the Neanderthals. Mankind Quarterly, 39:437-455.
The article suggests that violent conflict, neglected by recent scholarship, was a key factor in bringing about the Neanderthals' demise in the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Relying on the general archeological evidence regarding group sizes and drawing an analogy from historical hunter-gatherer societies, the author argues that Cro-Magnon man probably had large, 'tribal', groupings as opposed to the Neanderthal's small ones. Inter alia this would have given Homo sapiens sapiens a deci...

Gotz MJ, EC Johnstone, SG Ratcliffe. 1999. Criminality and antisocial behaviour in unselected men with sex chromosome abnormalities. Psychological Medicine, 29:953-962.
Previous studies on male patients with sex chromosome abnormalities (SCA) namely XYY and XXY, suggest that such patients commit criminal acts more frequently than expected. Most of these studies are affected by ascertainment bias. Using a population-based sample of men with SCA, identified by screening 38380 infants at birth between 1967 and 1979, comparison between 16 XYY men, 13 XXY men and 45 controls were made in terms of frequency of antisocial personality disorder (APD) using the Schedule ...

Lockwood, Charles. 1999. Sexual Dimorphism in the Face of Australopithecus africanus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 108:97-127.
Recently discovered crania of Australopithecus africanus from Sterkfontein Member 4 and Makapansgat enlarge the size range of the species and encourage a reappraisal of both the degree and pattern of sexual dimorphism. Resampling methodology (bootstrapping) is used here to establish that A. africanus has a greater craniofacial size range than chimpanzees or modern humans, a range which is best attributed to a moderately high degree of sexual dimorphism. Compared to other fossil hominins, this va...

Lovvorn MB, Gill GW, Carlson GF, Bozell JR, & TL Steinacher.. 1999. Microevolution and the skeletal traits of a middle archaic burial: metric and multivariate comparison to Paleoindians and modern Amerindians. American Antiquity, 64:527-539.
Skeletal remains recovered and analyzed from Archaic and Paleoindian periods demonstrate less pronounced Asiatic/Sinodont features that distinguish them from present-day Amerindians. This paper describes the metric and nonmetric traits that link a Middle Plains Archaic male (radiocarbon dated to 2220-2500 B.C.), found near Sidney, Nebraska, to Sinodonts, Sundadonts, and Paleoindians. Metrically, the Sidney male differs from Late Prehistoric and Historic Mandan and Arikara males (1500 to 1830 A.D...

Lovvorn MB; Gill GW; Carlson GF; Bozell JR; Steinacher TL. 1999. Microevolution and the skeletal traits of a middle archaic burial: metric and multivariate comparison to Paleoindians and modern Amerindians American Antiquity, 64(3):527-545.
Skeletal remains recovered and analyzed from Archaic and Paleoindian periods demonstrate less pronounced Asiatic/Sinodont features that distinguish them from present-day Amerindians. This paper describes the metric and non-metric traits that link a Middle Plains Archaic male (radiocarbon dated to 2220-2500 B.C.), found near Sidney, Nebraska, to Sinodonts, Sundadonts, and Paleoindians. Metrically, the Sidney male differs from Late Prehistoric and Historic Mandan and Arikara males (1500 to 1830 A....

Matsumoto-Oda Akiko. 1999. Mahale Chimpanzees: Grouping Patterns and Cycling Females. American Journal of Primatology, 47:197-207.
The social system of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) is characterized by the fission-fusion of social groups. Several studies have reported that females are less gregarious than males. In the current study, adult female gregariousness depended on their reproductive state. Noncycling adult females (pregnant, lactating, or post reproductive) were observed in large bisexual parties less often than cycling adult females. On the other hand, cycling adult females were observed in large bi...

McCartney AP, Veltre DW. 1999. Aleutian Island prehistory: living in insular extremes. World Archaeology, 30:503-515.
Peoples of the Aleutian Islands lived under a number of stressful environmental constraints, including extreme isolation, volcanic eruptions, seismic activity (including tsunamis), frequent storms, rough seas, gale-force winds, frequent fog and precipitation, and an exclusive marine diet. Nevertheless, the Aleutian Islands supported a large maritime population during late prehistoric times. Cultural adaptations to these conditions included the use of relatively large coastal settlements, semisub...

McCollum, Melanie A.. 1999. The robust australopithecine face: A morphogenetic perspective. Science, 284:301-308.
Focuses on the morphogenetic properties of the australopithecine face. Craniodental features, Monophyletic origin, Singular pattern of nasomaxillary modeling, Efforts to increase cladistic resolutions....

Palombit RA. 1999. Infanticide and the Evolution of Pair Bonds in Nonhuman Primates. Evolutionary Anthropology, 7:117-129.
Social relationships between adult males and females vary widely among mammals. In general, interactions between the sexes, particularly those of an affiliative nature, are associated with and, indeed, often limited to the period of copulation or female estrus. Nevertheless, cohesive male-female bonds persist beyond estrus in some species, particularly nonhuman primates, for reasons that remain largely obscure. Protection from male infanticide has been offered as a potential benefit to females o...

Peccei, JS. 1999. First estimates of heritability in the age of menopause. Current Anthropology, 40:553-558.
No abstract available....

Stirnadel HA, St?ckle M, Felger I, Smith T, Tanner M, Beck H. 1999. Malaria infection and morbidity in infants in relation to genetic polymorphisms in Tanzania. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 4:187-193.
Examines the effects of genetic polymorphisms on malaria infection and morbidity in infants in Tanzania. Influence of hemoglobin type on the distribution of Merozoite surface protein-1, Factors contributing to heterogeneities in malaria morbidity, Impact of sickle cell trait on parasite density....

Turner, A. 1999. Assessing earliest human settlement of Eurasia: Late Pliocene dispersions from Africa. Antiquity, 73:563-570.
Continued discussion of the timing and intensity of earliest human occupation of Europe takes little account of the wider patterning of mammalian dispersions between Africa and Eurasia as a guide. Viewed as a paleontological event, the maximum period of such movement appears to be of latest Pliocene age, while conditions during the Early Pleistocene seem to have been particularly unsuited to dispersions through the Levant....

Ward C; Leakey Meave; Walker A. 1999. The New Hominid Species Australopithecus anamensis Evolutionary Anthropology, 7:197-205.
Australopithecus anamensis is the earliest species of this genus to have been found. Fossils attributed to A. Anamensis have been recovered from sediments dating to between 3.8 and 4.2 mya at the sites of Kanapoi and Allia Bay in northern Kenya. A. anamensis is still poorly known in comparison with other early hominid species, but the material discovered so far displays primitive features along with more derived characteristics typical of later Australopithecus species. This mix of features su...

Ward S; Brown B; Hill A; Kelley J; Downs W. 1999. Equatorius: A New Hominoid Genus from the Middle Miocene of Kenya. Science, 285:1382-1387.
Describes a partial hominoid skeleton from a Middle Miocene site located west of Lake Baringo in central Kenya that seems to be an early member of the great ape-human clade. The two species of Kenyapithecus that are currently recognized; Description of this new genus; Etymology....

Wood B and Collard M. 1999. The changing face of genus Homo. EVOLUTIONARY ANTHROPOLOGY, 6:195-207.
Since its introduction in the 18th century, the genus Homo has undergone a number of reinterpretations, all of which have served to make it a more inclusive taxon. In this paper, we trace this trend towards greater inclusiveness, and explain how it has affected the way Homo is defined. We then demonstrate that the current criteria for identifying species of Homo are difficult, if not impossible, to operate using paleoanthropological evidence. We discuss alternative, verifiable, criteria, and sho...

Wood B, Collard M. 1999. The human genus. Science, 284:65-81.
Reviews conventional criteria for allocating fossil species to the genus Homo, problem of how to incorporate information about evolutionary history into taxonomy, belief that the problem is exemplified in defining the genus Homo, criteria found to be either inappropriate or inoperable, revised definition for Homo, conclusion that Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis do not belong in the genus....

Alvarez HP. 2000. Grandmother hypothesis and primate life histories. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 113:435-450.
The adaptive significance of midlife menopause in human females has long engaged the attention of evolutionary anthropologists. In spite of extensive debate, the problem has only recently been examined in the context of primate life histories. Here I extend those investigatins by comparing life history traits in 16 primate species to test predictions generated from life history theory. In humans, late ages of maturity and higher than expected birth rates are systematically associated with ext...

Cheer SM, Allen JS, Huntsman J. 2000. Lactose digestion capacity in Tokelauans: A case for the role of gene flow and genetic drift in establishing the lactose absorption allele in a Polynesian population. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 113:119-127.
Throughout the Pacific, lactose absorption occurs at rates of 0-46%. Most authors explain the current rate of lactose absorption in the Pacific in terms of gene flow with Europeans. However, researchers have not been able to determine the exact historical circumstances of the introduction of the lactose absorption gene. The availability of genealogical material, historic information and mal/absorption frequencies for Tokelau ( a Polynesian population) presents a unique opportunity to examine the...

Crow TJ. 2000. Schizophrenia as the price that Homo sapiens pays for language: a resolution of the central paradox in the origin of the species. Brain Research Reviews, 31:118 - 129.
The central paradox of schizophrenia is that the condition, apparently genetic in origin, persists in spite of a substantial fecundity disadvantage. The hypothesis is proposed that the predisposition to schizophrenia is a component of Homo sapiens-specific variation associated with the capacity for language. A genetic change the ‘speciation event’, predicted to be related to the Xq21.3 to Yp. chromosomal transposition that separates Homo sapiens from the great apes allowed the hemispheres to dev...

de Waal FBM. 2000. Primates--A Natural Heritage of Conflict Resolution Science, 289:586-593.
The traditional notion of aggression as an antisocial instinct is being replaced by a framework that considers it a tool of competition and negotiation. When survival depends on mutual assistance, the expression of aggression is constrained by the need to maintain beneficial relationships. Moreover, evolution has produced ways of countering its disruptive consequences. For example, chimpanzees kiss and embrace after fights, and other nonhuman primates engage in similar "reconciliations." Theoret...

Gabunia L; Vekua A; Lordkipanidze D; Swisher CC; Ferring R; Justus A; Nioradze M; Tvatchretidze M; Anton SC; Bosinsik G; Joris O; Lumtey M; Majsuradze G; Mouskhelishvili A. 2000. Ealiest Pleistocene hominid cranial remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia: taxonomy, geological setting, and age. Science, 288:1019-1025.
Reports a study which described the Pleistocene hominid cranial remains excavated from Dmanisi, Georgia, an archaeological site. Taxonomic affinity; Age and geological context of the remains; Description of the site; Stratigraphy and context of the hominids; Age of the Dmanisi site....

Galloway VA; Leonard WR; Ivakine E. 2000. Basal metabolic adaptation of the Evenki reindeer herders of central Siberia. American Journal of Human Biology, 12:75-87.

Previous research has suggested that basal metabolic rates (BMRs of indigenous circumpolar populations are elevated, perhaps as an adaptation to chronic, severe cold stress. This study examines variation in BMR among indigenous (Evenki) and nonindigenous (Russian immigrant) populations living in Central Siberia to determine: 1) whether the Evenki show evidence of increased metabolic rates, and 2) whether the metabolic responses of the Evenki are different from those of the recent Russian mi...

Hemelrijk CK. 2000. Self-reinforcing Dominance Interactions Between Virtual Males and Females: Hypothesis Generation for Primate Studies. Adaptive Behavior, 8:13-26.
Although in group-living primates an individual's dominance position is a consequence of its social skills with both sexes, there are few data and hardly any theory on male-female dominance relationships. In order to stimulate a systematic study on this topic, I present a simple individualoriented model on inter-sexual dominance and how it is influenced by species characteristics of primates, such as intensity of aggression and sex ratio. The model represents a virtual world inhabited by entitie...

Hopkins, W.D., Pearson, K.. 2000. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Handedness: Variability Across Multiple Measures of Hand Use. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 114:126-135.
No Abstract....

Krishnamani R, Mahaney WC. 2000. Geophagy Among Primates: Adaptive Significance and Ecological Consequences. Animal Behaviour, 59:(899-915).
We review geophagy, or soil ingestion, in primates. This behavior is widespread and is presumed to be important to health and nutrient ion. Primates may engage in geophagy for combination of reasons. Here we present, and make a preliminary assessment of, six non exclusives hypotheses that may contribute to the prevalence of geophagy. Four hypotheses relate to geophagy in alleviating gastrointestinal disorders or upsets: (1) soils absorb toxins such as phenolics and secondary metabolites, (2) soi...

Michael B. 2000. self-organization and irreducibly complex systems: a reply to Shanks and Joplin philosophy of science, 67:155-162.
One must assume that for a figurehead of intelligent design, Michael Behe must be used to criticism. His theory of intelligent design has been decried by evolutionists and hailed by creationists. Intelligent design states that evolution cannot account for all the complexity present in biological systems. Yet in his article, Behe inadequately responds to whether redundant, self-organizing, complex biochemical systems contradict the intelligent design argument and instead only clarifies what const...

Miller-Antonio, L, A, Schepartz, S. , Bakken D.A.. 2000. Upland Resources and the Early Papaeolithic Occupation of Sourthern China, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and Burma. World Archaeology, 32:1-13.
The southwestern Chinese provinces and neighbouring upland areas in Burma, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam form a geographical region with an expanding Palaeolithic record. The area was a gateway for the dispersion of populations into East Asia and Island Southeast Asia. It is therefore important to examine the diversity of environments and resources that the earliest inhabitants encountered, and to identify adaptations and technologies that may have shaped subsequent exploitations of Asian environme...

Olupot, William. 2000. Mass Differences among Male Mangabey Monkeys Inhabiting Logged and Unlogged Forest Compartments. Conservation Biology, 14:833-843.
William Olupot, captured 31 adult male grey cheeked mangabeys (Lophocebur albigena), between July 1996 and July 1998 from groups occupying logged and unlogged forest in Kibale National Park, in Uganda. Each male mangabey was weighed, measured, fitted with radiocollars, and radiotracked three to five times a week. Olupot concluded that male mangabeys from groups in the unlogged forest were significantly heavier than males from the logged forest and males that immigrated into the study groups we...

Pettitt PB. 2000. Neanderthal lifecycles: Development and social phases in the lives of the last archaics. World Archaeology, 31(3):351-366.
Neanderthal lives were not easy, and, given the levels of physical exertion they seem to have experienced habitually, bringing them often into contact with physical trauma, it would not be surprising if such phenomena played a major role in the way in which Neanderthals perceived the world. This is the underlying theme of this paper, which is organized into two parts. After presenting data on Neanderthal ontogeny and lifecycles, an attempt is made to integrate these broadly with the archaeolog...

Richmond, Brian G., Strait, David S.. 2000. Evidence that Humans Evolved from a Knuckle-walking Ancestor. Nature, 404:382-385.
It has been possible to identify four skeletal features of the distal radius as elements of a morphological complex involved in stabilizing the wrist in extension during knuckle-walking. This research, based on fossils attributed to Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis, suggests that the behavioural/morphological complex connected with knuckle-walking is a synapomorphy of the African ape and human clade. This eliminates key morphological evidence connecting chimpanzees with ...

Rozin, Paul. 2000. Evolution and adaption in the understanding of behavior, culture, and mind. American Behavioral Scientist, 43:970-987.
This article lays out a middle ground between strong evolutionary-adaptationist and strong environmental-determinist positions. It acknowledges the importance of human evolution in understanding current human functions and activities while also acknowledging the powerful role of culture in shaping humans. The biological, environmental, and cultural forces that lead to generality or distinctive specificity in different groups of humans are summarized, with some consideration to principles of evol...

Smay D; Armelagos G. 2000. Galileo Wept: A Critical Assessment of the Use of Race in Forensic Anthropology Transforming Anthropology, 9:19-29.
Anthropology has been haunted by the misuse of the race concept since its beginnings. Although modern genetics has shown time and again that race is not a biological reality and cannot adequately describe human variation, many anthropologists are unable or unwilling to put aside racial typology as an explanatory tool. Here, we consider the case of forensic anthropology as an example often held up by uncritical anthropologists as evidence that the race concept "works." The logic appears to be tha...

Stern JT. 2000. Climbing to the top: A personal memoir of Australopithecus afarensis. Evolutionary Anthropology, 9:113 - 133.
Jack Stern is Professor and Chair of Anatomical Sciences at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He began his career as a comparative primate anatomist and soon became interested in experimental methods for testing functional morphological hypotheses. Many of his publications deal with muscle function in nonhuman primates as revealed by telemetered electromyography. He has also collaborated on kinematic, kinetic, and bone strain studies. This paper, however, deals with his foray into...

Strkalj, Goran. 2000. Form and race: Terminological concepts of for the study of human variation. Mankind Quarterly, 41:109-119.
The author notes the debate amongst Western anthropologists concerning the various ways in which term 'race' can be used in scientific writing, and refers to animal taxonomy in an attempt to determine paradigmatic principles governing scholarly usage of the term 'race' might be based. As amongst anthropologists, animal taxonomists used the term 'race' in two different ways, sometimes equivalent to 'subspecies' and sometimes as synonymous with 'breeding population.' However, some taxonomists use ...

Takai, Masanuru, Anaya, Federico, Shigehara, Nobuo, Setoguchi, Takeshi. 2000. New Fossil Materials of the Earliest New World Monkey, Branisella boliviana, and the Problem of Platyrrhine Origins. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 111:263-281.
Branisella boliviana, from the Late Oligocene of Salla, Bolivia, is the oldest fossil platyrrhine monkey discovered. To date, several fossil specimens of Branisella have been obtained, but most of them are fragmentary dentitions, so the animals craniodental morphology is still obscure. During the 1996 field season a pair of upper and lower jaw fragments and another nearly complete mandible were recovered. These new fossil materials reveal the following morphological features in Branisella: 1) P(...

Tayles N; Domett K; Nelson K. 2000. Agriculture and dental caries? The case of rice in prehistoric Southeast Asia. World Archaeology, 32:68-83.
The agricultural transition has long been recognized to have been a very important period in human prehistory. Its timing and consequences, including the effects on human health, have been intensively researched. In recent decades, this has included the idea that there is a universal positive correlation between the adoption of agriculture based on a carbohydrate staple crop and dental caries prevalence. This is mainly based on evidence from America, where maize was the staple crop. On the bas...

Teaford MF, Ungar PS. 2000. Diet and evolution of the earliest human ancestors. Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences, 97:13506-1351.
Over the past decade, discussions of the evolution of the earliest human ancestors have focused on the locomotion of the australopithecines. Recent discoveries in a broad range of disciplines have raised important questions about the influence of ecological factors in early human evolution. Here we trace the cranial and dental traits of the early australopithecines through time, to show that between 4.4 million and 2.3 million years ago, the dietary capabilities of the earliest hominids changed ...

Teaford MF; Ungar PS. 2000. Diet and the evolution of the earliest human ancestors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(25):13506-1351.
Over the past decade discussions of the evolution of the earliest human ancestors have focused on the locomotion of the australopithecines. Recent discoveries in a broad range of disciplines have raised important questions about the influence of ecological factors in early human evolution. Here we trace the cranial and dental traits of the early australopithecines through time, to show that between 4.4 million and 2.3 million years ago, the dietary capabilities of the earliest hominids changed...

Weingrill T. 2000. Infanticide and the value of male-female relationships in mountain chacma baboons. Behaviour, 137:337-359.
Associations between females and males over relatively long periods of time are common among savannah baboons (Papio cynocephalus). It seems clear that a female can benefit from close proximity to a male, since males arte powerful partners in conflict situations with conspecifics and predators. For a male, proposed benefits of an association with a female are: a) increased chances of mating with a female in the future through a positive effect on female choice and b) increased fitness of the o...

White, T.D., Suwa, G., Simpson, S., Asfaw, B.. 2000. Jaws and Teeth of Australopithecus afarensis from Maka, Middle Awash, Ethiopia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 111:45 - 68.
The Maka locality in Ethiopia's Middle Awash area has yielded new craniodental remains dated to 3.4 million years (myr) in age. These remains are described and assessed functionally and systematically. The fossils are assigned to Australopithecus afarensis. Maka thus joins Hadar and Laetoli as the third major locality yielding this species. As with previous site samples, the Maka collection displays a wide range of size variation. The nearly complete and undistorted MAK-VP-1/12 adult mandible fr...

Wolpoff MH; Hawks J; Caspari R. 2000. Multiregional, not multiple origins American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 112:129-136.
Multiregional evolution is a model to account for the pattern of human evolution in the Pleistocene. The underlying hypothesis is that a worldwide network of genic exchanges, between evolving human populations that continually divide and reticulate, provides a frame of population interconnections that allows both species-wide evolutionary change and local distinctions and differentiation. “Multiregional” does not mean independent multiple origins, ancient divergence of modern populations, ...

Ambrose SH. 2001. Paleolithic technology and human evolution. Science, 291:1748-1753.
Human biological and cultural evolution are closely linked to technological innovations. Direct evidence for tool manufacture and use is absent before 2.5 million years ago (Ma), so reconstructions of australopithecine technology are based mainly on the behavior and anatomy of chimpanzees. Stone tool technology, robust australopithecines, and the genus Homo appeared almost simultaneously 2.5 Ma. Once this adaptive threshold was crossed, technological evolution was accompanied by increased brain ...

Antolin MF; Herbers JM. 2001. Perspective: Evolution's struggle for existence in America's public schools. Evolution, 55(12):2379-2388.
The ongoing creation-evolution controversy in North America thrives on the widespread special creationist beliefs of a significant portion of the public. Creation science supports a literal interpretation of the Judea-Christian Bible, an earth that is no more than 10,000 years old and created ex-nihilo in six days by a monotheistic God, with no new kinds arising since the period of creation, and with a single flood of staggering force shaping layers of rocks and trapping the organisms fossilize...

Barbour I G. 2001. Science and Scientism in Huston Smith's Why Religion Matters Zygon, 36:207-214.
Houston Smith is justifiably critical of scientism, the belief that science is the only path to truth. He holds that scientism and the materialism that accompanies it have led to a widespread denial of the transcendence expressed in traditional religious world view. He argues that evolutionary theory should be seen as a product of scientism rather than scientific evidence, citing authors who claim that the fossil record does not support the idea of continuous descent with modification from ear...

Boaz, Noel T., Ciochon, Russell L.. 2001. The Scavenging of 'Peking Man'. Natural History, 110:46-52.
Examines the evidences of Homo erectus found at the Peking Man Site in Zhoukoudian, China which suggests that the site was not the home of the Homo erectus. Cannibalism theory proposed by archaeologist Henri Breuil, Results of tests on the giant hyena hypothesis, Hypothesis on why evidence of fire was present on the site....

Bottini, N, Meloni GF, Finocchi A, Ruggiu G, Amante A, Meloni T, Bottini E. 2001. Maternal-fetal interaction in the ABO system: A comparative analysis of healthy mothers and couples with recurrent spontaneous abortion suggests a protective effect of B incompatibility. Human Biology, 73:167-174.
We investigated the possible differential effects of A and B blood group materno-fetal incompatibility on human fertility through a comparative analysis of couples with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and healthy mothers. ABO phenotype was determined in 5180 healthy mothers and their newborn babies from the population of Sassari (Sardinia) and in 1359 healthy puerperae (women who have just given birth) from the population of Rome. Mother-newborn joint ABO distribution in healthy mothers was...

Boulle E. 2001. Evolution of two human skeletal markers of the squatting postion: a diachronic study from antiquity to the modern age. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 115:50-56.
Some human skeletal features that were produced through the actions of their bearers during life allow the reconstruction of postures. These can be typical of population groups. For example, tibial retroversion and lateral squatting facets are two skeletal markers closely related to the habit of squatting. The facets and the retroversion are induced by pressure and traction as a consequence of the hyperdorsiflexion of the knees and ankles. The examination of 543 tibiae and tali from French and A...

Bygren LO; Kaati G; Edvinsson S. 2001. Longevity Determined by Paternal Ancestors' Nutrition during Their Slow Growth Period Acta Biotheoretica, 49:53-59.
Social circumstances often impinge on later generations in a socio-economic manner, giving children an uneven start in life. Overfeeding and overeating might not be an exception. The pathways might be complex but one direct mechanism could be genomic imprinting and loss of imprinting. An intergenerational "feedforward" control loop has been proposed, that links grandparental nutrition with the grandchild's growth. The mechanism has been speculated to be a specific response, e.g. to their nutriti...

Duller GAT. 2001. Dating Methods: The Role of Geochronology in Studies of Human Evolution and Migration in Southeast Asia and Australasia. Progress in Physical Geography, 25:267-276.
The origin of our own species has been a subject of intense debate since the development of the theory of evolution and the publication of Darwin’s book The descent of man in 1871. Within the last decade or so, a number of issues have been addressed with new discoveries of hominid remains and occupation sites, but the record is still fragmentary. As a result of the spatial diversity of the sites, obtaining accurate chronological control has been vital in piecing together the records. This articl...

Fonda RA. 2001. Age and Origin of the Human Species. The Mankind Quarterly, 42:189-199.
Investigates the origin of human species. Analysis on the existence of Homo sapiens sapiens, homo erectus and Ngandong species, Discussion on the evolution of `Homo' to full `sapiens' in Eurasia, Basis of age of human species through usage of mitochondrial DNA....

Grace CR. 2001. The Pleistocene Mind: a critical review of Evolutionary Psychology and an introduction to Intelligent Design Psychology. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 29:289-300.
Grace discusses the theoretical perspective of evolutionary psychology within the field of psychology. Applying the adaptationist model from evolutionary biology; Rejection of standard social sciences model; Pleistocene evolution as the designer of specialized brain circuits within the mind; Claims about universal human nature; Arguments brought against evolutionary psychology by philosophers, scientists, and evolutionary biologists; Implications of evolutionary psychology upon Christian psychol...

Heistermann M; Ziegler T; van Schaik CP; Launhardt K; Winkler P; Hodges JK. 2001. Loss of Oestrus, Concealed Ovulation and Paternity Confusion in Free-Ranging Hanuman Langurs. The Royal Society, 268:2445-2451.
Ovarian cycles in catarrhine primates are uniquely characterized by prolonged periods of sexual activity in which the timings of ovulation and copulation do not necessarily correspond. According to current hypotheses of primate social evolution, extended sexuality in multi-male groups might represent part of a female strategy to confuse paternity in order to reduce the risk of infanticide by males. We test this hypothesis by examining mating behaviour in relation to timing of ovulation and pater...

Huffman MA. 2001. Self-Medicative Behavior in the African Great Apes: An Evolutionary Perspective into the Origins of Human Traditional Medicine. BioScience, 51:651-661.
Abstract: Presents an article which looks at the study of great ape self-medication, and view that it provides a window into the origins of herbal medicine use by humans. Outlook for how the study could provide insights into ways of treating parasite infections and other diseases; Discussion of support which has been gained for zoopharmacognosy, or animal self-medication; Mention of bitter-pith chewing and leaf-swallowing behavior among great apes; Impact of bitter-pith chewing on parasite load....

Kaszycka KA. 2001. A new graphic reconstruction of the type specimen of Australopithecus robustus from Kromdraai, South Africa - TM 1517. South African Journal of Science, 97:404-409.
Since its discovery in 1958, two reconstructions of the skull TM 1517 - the holotype of A. robustus - have been made, neither of them accurate. Here a new reconstruction is presented, based on current, widened knowledge about the Kromdraai hominid sample and the South Africa australopithecines....

Marriog G; Cheverud JM.. 2001. A Comparison of Phenotypic Variation and Covariation Patterns and the Role of Phylogeny, Ecology, and Ontogeny during Cranial Evolution of New World Monkeys Evolution, 55:2576-2600.
Similarity of genetic and phenotypic variation patterns among populations is important for making quantitative inferences about past evolutionary forces acting to differentiate populations and for evaluating the evolution of relationships among traits in response to new functional and developmental relationships. Here, phenotypic covariance and correlation structure is compared among Platyrrhini neotropical primates. Comparisons range from among species within a genus to the superfamily level. M...

Miller, NP. 2001. Life, The Universe and everything consitutional: origins in the public schools. Journal of Church & State, 43:483-511.
Miller approaches his article from a legal philosophers perspective giving him less biased arena to argue from. He provides a history of the creation-evcolution debate as played out in the U.S. courts. He garners evidence supporting Intelligent design as a qualifying scientific theory to taught alongside Darwinian evolution. The failure in his argument is his assertion that the theories are methodologically and metaphysically equivalent. Science (evolutionary theory) abstains from metaphysical p...

Moffat T. 2001. A Biocultural Investigation of the Weanling’s Dilemma in Kathmandu, Nepal: do universal Recommendations for Weaning Practices make sense? Journal of biosocial Science, 33:321-338.


The primary objective of this report is to use data from a study of infant growth and weaning practices in Kathmandu, Nepal, to investigate universal recommendations about exclusive breast-feeding up to 6 months postpartum. A secondary objective is to demonstrate the complexity of the biocultural nature of infant feeding practices. A sample of 283 children under 5 years of age and their 228 mothers living in a peri-urban district of Kathmandu participated in this study. The children’s...

Moore LG. 2001. Human genetic adaptation to high altitude. High Altitude Medicine & Biology, 2:257-279.
Some 140 million persons live permanently at high altitudes (>2500 m) in North, Central and South America, East Africa, and Asia. Reviewed here are recent studies which address the question as to whether genetic adaptation to high altitude has occurred. Common to these studies are the use of the oxygen transport system and the passage of time as organizing principles, and the recognition of the multifaceted ways in which genetic factors can influence physiological processes. They differ in terms...

Moore LG. 2001. Human Genetic Adaptation to High Altitude High Altitude Medicine and Biology, 2(2):257–279.
Some 140 million persons live permanently at high altitudes (.2500 m) in North, Central and South America, East Africa, and Asia. Reviewed here are recent studies which address the question as to whether genetic adaptation to high altitude has occurred. Common to these studies are the use of the oxygen transport system and the passage of time as organizing principles, and the recognition of the multifaceted ways in which genetic factors can influence physiological processes. They differ in terms...

Moore, Lorna G., Zamudi, Stacy, Zhuang, Jinguo, Sun, Shinfu, Droma, Tarshi. 2001. Oxygen Transport in Tibetan Women During Pregnancy at 3,658M. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 114:42-53.
High-altitude reduces birth weight as a result of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and is a ssociated with increased neonatal mortality. We hypothesized that babies born to Tibetan compared to Han (Chinese) high-altitude residents were protected from IUGR as a result of increased O2 transport due, in turn, to increased uterine artery (UA) blood flow. We studied 68 nonpregnant or pregnant Tibetan or Han residents of Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, China (3658m). The pregnant women had highe...

Murray SS;Schoeninger MJ;Bunn HT;Pickering TR;Marlett JA. 2001. Nutritional composition of some wild plant foods and honey used by Hadza foragers in Tanzania. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 14:3-13.


We report compositional data for several foods that comprise the annual diet among Hadza foragers near Lake Eyasi in northern Tanzania. Samples collected during daily gathering trips over three fieldwork seasons were prepared according to Hadza methods. All three types of honey show moisture and starch levels similar to United States’ honeys but higher levels of protein, fat, and ash. Several samples had significant fat levels probably due to the inclusion of bee larvae. The macronut...

Ojo-Ade F. 2001. Africans and Racism in the New Millennium Journal of Black Studies, 32:184-211.
Given the general excitement over the New Millennium, Femi Ojo-Ade has deemed it fit to re-visit the question of race and color with regards to Africans from the continent and the Diaspora. His intention is to determine whether humanity has made enough progress to belie the late W.E.B. Du Bois's 1903 statement on the preeminance of racism as a universal problem. The critic uses both written texts and film to assess the experiences of Africans as they encounter Euro-America and search for ident...

Paisley J; Sheeshka J; Daly K. 2001. Qualitative investigation of the meanings of eating fruits and vegetables for adult couples. Journal of Nutrition Education, 33:199-207.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory expressing the meanings couples associated with eating fruits and vegetables.
Design: This inductive qualitative study was based on a grounded theory approach and employed the constant comparison method of data analysis. Data were collected using semistructured individual interviews and a life history approach.
Subjects: Ten adult couples, aged 20 to 60 years, with and without children, all of whom were born...

Plavcan, JM. 2001. Sexual Dimorphism in Primate Evolution Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 44:25-53.
Sexual dimorphism is a pervasive phenomenon among anthropoid primates. Comparative analyses over the past 30 years have greatly expanded our understanding of both variation in the expression of dimorphism among primates, and the underlying causes of sexual dimorphism. Dimorphism in body mass and canine tooth size is familiar, as is pelage and ?sex skin? dimorphism. More recent analyses are documenting subtle differences in the pattern of skeletal dimorphism among primates. Comparative analyses h...

Reader, Simon M.and Laland, Kevin N. 2001. Primate innovation: sex, age and social rank differences. International Journal of Primatology, 22:787-805.
Analysis of an exhaustive survey of primate behavior collated from the published literature revealed significant variation in rates of innovation among individuals of different sex, age and social rank. We searched approximately 1,000 articles in four primatology journals, together with other relevant databases, for examples of innovation. The reported incidence of innovation is higher in males and adults, and lower in females and nonadults, than would be expected by chance given the estimated r...

Rupert J;Hochachka P. 2001. Genetic approaches to understanding Human adaptation to altitude in the Andes. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 204:3151-3160.
Despite the initial discomfort often experienced by visitors to high altitude, humans have occupied the Andean altiplano for more than 10,000 years, and millions of people, indigenous and otherwise, currently live on these plains, high in the mountains of South America, at altitudes exceeding 3000 m. While, to some extent, acclimatization can accommodate the one-third decrease in oxygen availability, having been born and raised at altitude appears to confer a substantial advantage in high altit...

Schmidt KL; Cohn JF. 2001. Human facial expressions as adaptations: evolutionary questions in facial expression research. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 44:3-24.
The importance of the face in social interaction and social intelligence is widely recognized in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current knowledge of the phenotypic variation, ecological contexts, and fitness consequences of facial behavior. Studies of facial expression are available, but results are not typically framed in a...

Simons EL. 2001. The cranium of Parapithecus grangeri, an Egyptian Oligocene anthropoidean primate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98(14):7892-7897.
A nearly complete skull of Parapithecus grangeri from the early Oligocene is described. The specimen is relatively undistorted and is undoubtedly the most complete higher primate skull yet found in the African Oligocene, which also makes it the most complete Oligocene primate cranium worldwide. Belonging in superfamiliy Parapithicoidea, a group regarded by some as the sister group to all other Anthopoidea, this skull reveals important information about the radiation of stem anthropoideans. Th...

Soltis J, Thomsen R, Takenaka O. 2001. The interaction of male and female reproductive strategies and paternity in wild Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata. Animal Behaviour, 62:485-494.
Japanese macaques reside in large, mixed-sex social groups in which various reproductive strategies of both sexes operate simultaneously. This report represents the first study combining behavioural and genetic data to examine the interaction of male and female reproductive strategies in primates (N=15 adult males, N=15 adult females, Yakushima Island, Japan). During one mating season, socially dominant males monopolized most female matings. Furthermore, the six offspring sired by troop males we...

Stauffer, R.L., Walker, A., Ryder, A., Lyons-Weiler, M., and Hedges, S.B.. 2001. Human and Ape Molecular Clocks and Constraints on Paleontological Hypotheses. Journal of Heredity, 92:469-474.
Although the relationships of the living hominoid primates (humans and apes) are well known, the relationships of the fossil species, times of divergence of both living and fossil species, and the biogeographic history of hominoids are not well established. Divergence times of living species, estimated from molecular clocks, have the potential to constrain hypotheses of the relationships of fossil species. In this study, new DNA sequences from nine protein-coding nuclear genes in great apes are ...

Steve Olson. 2001. The genetic archaeology of race. Atlantic Monthly, 4:69-83.
DNA analysis is explaining where 'racial difference' comes from--and what it does and doesn't mean. The study of human genetic variation have become the most contentious area in modern science....

Wolpoff MH; Hawks J; Frayer DW; Hunley K. 2001. Modern human ancestry at the peripheries: a test of the replacement theory. Science, 291:293-309.
The replacement theory of modern human origins stipulates that populations outside of Africa were replaced by a new African species of modern humans. Here we test the replacement theory in two peripheral areas far from Africa by examining the ancestry of early modern Australians and Central Europeans. Analysis of pairwise differences was used to determine if dual ancestry in local archaic populations and earlier modern populations from the Levant and/or Africa could be rejected. The data imply t...

Wood, Bernard, Lieberman, Daniel E.. 2001. Craniodental Variation in Paranthropus boisei: A Developmental and Functional Perspective. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 116:13-25.
What levels and patterns of craniodental variation among a fossil hypodigm are necessary to reject the null hypothesis that only a single species is sampled? We suggest how developmental and functional criteria can be used to predict where in the skeleton of fossil hominins we should expect more, or less, within-species variation. We present and test three hypotheses about the factors contributing to craniodental variation in extant primate taxa, and then apply these results to the interpretatio...

Aiello LC; Key C. 2002. Energetic consequences of being a homo erectus female American Journal of Human Biology, 14:551-565.
Body size is one of the most important characteristics of any animal because it affects a range of behavioral, ecological, and physiological traits including energy requirements, choice of food, reproductive strategies, predation risk, range size, and locomotor style. This article focuses on the implications of being large bodied for Homo erectus females, estimated to have been over 50% heavier than average australopithecine females. The energy requirements of these hominins are modeled using da...

Aiello LC; Wells JCK. 2002. Energetics and the Evolution of the Genus Homo. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31:323-338.
The genus Homo as represented by Homo ergaster (Dearly African Homo erectus) is characterized by a pattern of features that is more similar to modern humans than to the earlier and contemporaneous australopithecines and paranthropines. These features include larger relative brain sizes, larger bodies, slower rates of growth and maturation, dedicated bipedal locomotion, and smaller teeth and jaws. These features are phenotypic expressions of a very different lifestyle for the earliest member...

Alemseged Z; Coppens Y; Geraads D. 2002. Hominid cranium from Omo: description and taxonomy of Omo-323-1976-896. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 117:103-112.
Omo-323-1976-896, a partial hominid cranium dated to ca. 2.1 from the Member G, Unit G-8 of the Shungura Formation, lower Omo Basin of Ethiopia, is described. It is suggested that the specimen is an adult male based on the well-developed and completely fused sagittal crest; heavily worn teeth; relatively large canine; and size of the articular eminence. Omo-323 consists of fragments of the frontal, both temporals, occipital, parietals, and the right maxilla, and is attributed to Australo...

Alters BJ; Nelson CE. 2002. Perspective: teaching evolution in higher education International Journal of Organic Evolution, 56:1891-1901.
This article discusses the extreme amount of misunderstanding of biological evolution among the American public, particularly among college students and graduates. The authors list a number of reasons that they believe explain this widespread phenomenon. To counter this problem, they propose a new constructivist teaching approach in America's schools, colleges, and universities. ...

Anton, Susan C.. 2002. Evolutionary Significance of Cranial Variation in Asian Homo erectus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 118:301-323.
Homo erectus inhabited a wide geographic area of Asia, renging from 40 deg north latitude in China to 8 deg south latitude in island Southeast Asia. Yet variation within Asian H. erectus and its relation to ecological and temporal parameters have been little studied. I synthesize the revised radiometric chronologies for hominid sites in Asia and their relation to new oxygen isotope curves (proxies for climatic fluctuations and landbridge connections). These data suggest substantial opportunities...

Barr SM. 2002. Evolutionary Excesses: A Response to Moore. Academic Questions, 15:79-84.
Comments on an article by Randy Moore in the journal 'Academic Questions,' about the evolution-creationism debate in the United States. Reasons why many people oppose the teaching of evolution; Criticism of the way evolution is taught; Limits of the right to decide for other people what their children will be taught....

Bogin B; Smith P; Orden AB; Varela Silva MI; Loucky J. 2002. Rapid change in height and body proportions of Maya American children. American Journal of Human Biology, 14:753-761.
Maya families from Guatemala migrated to the United States in record numbers from the late 1970s to the early 1990s. Births to Maya immigrant women have created a sizable number of Maya American children. The height and sitting height of 5 to 12 years children (n = 431) were measured in 1999 and 2000. Leg length was estimated and the sitting height ratio was calculated. These data were compared with a sample of Maya children living in Guatemala measured in 1998 (n = 1,347). Maya American ch...

Braun L. 2002. Race, Ethnicity, and Health Can Genetics Explain Disparities? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 45:159-174.
Over the past decade, numerous studies have documented profound racial and ethnic disparities in disease in the United States. This essay examines how popular and scientific concepts of race and ethnicity converge with dominant understandings of genetics to inform the design and interpretation of research, public health policy, and medical practice. Although there is some acknowledgment in the biomedical community that racial and ethnic categories are social and not genetic, ideas about race and...

Brown CM. 2002. Hindu and Christian creationism: “transposed passages” in the geological book of life. Zygon, 37:95 - 114.
Antievolution arguments of Christian and Hindu creationists often critique Darwin’s metaphor of the geological record as an ill-preserved book of life, while highlighting the problem of anomalous fossils. For instance, Bible-based young-Earth creationists point to anomalous humanlike prints alongside authenticated dinosaur tracks to argue for the creation of all life some few thousand years ago. But Vedic-based ancient-hominid creationists view the same sort of evidence as indicating the existen...

Carey MC; Paigen B. 2002. Epidemiology of the American Indians' burden and its likely genetic origins Hepatology, 36:782-791.
It was not known until recently whether the endemic of cholesterol gallstones among certain southwestern American Indian tribes was unique among this ethnic group. With use of ultrasonography of the gallbladder and standard diagnostic criteria, gallstones are now found in epidemic proportions in 13 diverse American Indian tribes and communities living in Arizona, Oklahoma, and the Dakotas. We speculate that this predisposition is polygenic involving “thrifty” genes that conferred survival a...

Chiu C; Hamrick MW. 2002. Evolution and Development of the Primate Limb Skeleton Evolutionary Anthropology, 11:94–107.
The order Primates is composed of many closely related lineages, each having a relatively well established phylogeny supported by both the fossil record and molecular data. Primate evolution is characterized by a series of adaptive radiations beginning early in the Cenozoic era. Studies of these radiations have uncovered two major trends. One is that substantial amounts of morphological diversity have been produced over short periods of evolutionary time. The other is that consistent and repea...

Conroy GC. 2002. Speciosity in the early Homo lineage: too many, too few, or just about right? Journal of Human Evolution, 43:759-766.
No abstract for this article....

Dobson SD; Trinkhaus E. 2002. Cross-sectional geometry and morphology of the mandibular symphysis in Middle and Late Pleistocene Homo. Journal of Human Evolution, 43:67-87.
Studies of the evolutionary emergence of the human ‘‘chin’’ have been investigated from a phylogenetic perspective during the later Pleistocene or from a biomechanical perspective across extant primates. Since it was during the Middle and Late Pleistocene that the distinctive human mentum osseum emerged, the relationship between mentum osseum form and resistance to mechanical stress at the mandibular symphysis was examined for forty-two Middle and Late Pleistocene human mandibles. Mentum ...

Ellen R. 2002. Dangerous fictions and degrees of plausibility: Creationism, evolutionism, and anthropology. Anthropology Today, 18:3-9.
...

Ellen R. 2002. Dangerous Fictions and Degrees of Plausibility: Creationism, Evolutionism, and Anthropology. Anthropology Today, 18:3-8.
Focuses on the ambiguous status of evolutionary explanations in anthropology. Difference between evolutionism in the generic sense and Darwinism; Assumptions concerning the age of the earth that anthropologists challenge; Darwinian explanations for social and cultural changes; Disagreements among scientists on rate of evolution; Problems in assessing the plausibility of evolutionary arguments....

Eswaran V. 2002. A diffusion wave out of Africa: The mechanism of the modern human revolution? Current Anthropology, 43(5):749-774.
This paper proposes that the worldwide transition to an anatomically modern human form was caused by the diffusive spread from Africa of a genotype—a coadapted combination of novel genes—carrying a complex genetic advantage. It is suggested that the movement out of Africa was not a migration but a “diffusion wave”—a continuous expansion of modern populations by small random movements, hybridization, and natural selection favoring the modern genotype. It is proposed that the modern genotype arose...

G. Livshits , A. Roset , K. Yakovenko , S. Trofimov , E. Kobyliansky. 2002. Genetics of human body size and shape: body proportions and indices. Annals of Human Biology, 3:271 -- 289.
Background: The study of the genetic component in morphological variables such as body height and weight, head and chest circumference, etc. has a rather long history. However, only a few studies investigated body proportions and configuration. Aim: The major aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent of the possible genetic effects on the inter-individual variation of a number of body configuration indices amenable to clear functional interpretation. Subjects and methods: Two ethnicall...

Gihani ME; Calo MC; Autori L; Mameli GE; Succa V; Vacca L; Cerutti N; Rabino Massa E; Vona G.. 2002. New data on the genetic structure of the population of Sicily: analysis fo the Alia population (Palermo, Italy). American Journal of Human Biology, 14:289-299.
The distribution of 13 genetic markers (AB0, Rh, ACP, ADA, AK, ESD, GLO, PGD, PGMl, SOD, GC, TF, and PI) were studied in a sample from the Alia population of Sicily, Italy. A total of 34 alleles were detected. In comparison with other Sicilian populations, Alia always appeared genetically distinctive, either in terms of overall genetic diversity or for the number of unique alleles present. The results are consistent with previous studies that show no genetic uniformity within the island. More sp...

Goody CM. 2002. Rural Guatemalans Women’s Description of the Meaning of Food: Eating to Live and Living to Eat Nutritional Anthropology, 25:33-42.
Abstract not available...

Jablonski, Nina G.. 2002. 'Skin Deep'. Scientific American, 287:74-82.
Discusses the evolution of human skin colors. Distribution of skin colors among indigenous populations, Evidence that suggests that the worldwide pattern of skin color is the product of natural selection acting to regulate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation of the sun on nutrients crucial to reproduction, Evolution of human beings from apes, Body hair, Vitamin D synthesis, Effect of human migration on the appropriate amount of UV radiation that people receive, Skin cancer, Folate, Compari...

Leonard WR; Sorensen MV; Galloway VA; Spencer GJ; Mosher MJ; Osipova L; Spitsyn VA. 2002. Climatic influences on basal metabolic rates among circumpolar populations. American Journal of Human Biology, 14:609-620.
This article examines evidence for elevations in basal metabolic rate (BMR) among indigenous Northern (circumpolar) populations and considers potential mechanisms and the adaptive basis for such elevations. Data on BMR among indigenous (n = 109 males; 122 females) and nonindigenous (n = 15 males; 22 females) circumpolar groups of North America and Siberia are compiled and compared to predicted BMRs based on three different references: body surface area (Consolazio et al., 1963), body mass (Schof...

Luber GE. 2002. “Second-hair” illness in two Mesoamerican cultures: a biocultural study of the ethnomedical diagnosis of protein-energy malnutrition. Nutritional Anthropology, 25:9-20.
...

Mateu E; Calafell F; Ramos MD; Casals T; Bertranpetit J. 2002. Can a place of origin of the main cystic fibrosis mutations be identified? American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:257-264.
The genetic background of the mutations that most often cause cystic fibrosis (CF) is different from that of non-CF chromosomes in populations of European origin. It is not known whether these haplotype backgrounds could be found at high frequencies in populations in which CF is, at present, not common; such populations would be candidates for the place of origin of CF mutations. An analysis of haplotypes of CF transmembrane conductance regulator, together with their variation in specific CF c...

McGraw WS; Plavcan JM; Adachi-Kanazawa K. 2002. Adult Female Cercopithecus diana Employ Canine Teeth to Kill Another Female C. diana International Journal of Primatology, 23:1301-1308.
While male primates commonly use their large canine teeth in agnostic conflict display, observations that females use their canines in intraspecific fighting are very rare. We report the death of a female Cercopithecus diana in the Tai Forest, Ivory Coast. She was killed by other females from a single troop. It is not clear whether the victim was a troop resident or was transferring from another group. The conflict was not a result of territorial defense or interfoup conflict. Autopsy of the s...

Panger, MA; Brooks, AS; Richmond, BG; Wood, B. 2002. Older Than the Oldowan? Rethinking the Emergence of Hominin Tool Use. Evolutionary Anthropology, 11:235-245.
Intentionally modified stone tools first appear in the hominin archeological record about 2.5 mya. Their appearance has been variously interpreted as marking the onset of tool use by hominins or, less restrictively, the origin of hominin lithic technology.1,2 Although the 2.5 mya date has persisted for two decades, several related but distinct questions about the origin and evolution of hominin tool use remain to be answered: Did hominins use tools before 2.5 mya? Did hominins use unmodified sto...

Peters, Michael, Mackenzie, Kevin, Bryden, Pam. 2002. Finger Lengths and Distal Finger Extent Patterns in Humans. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 117:209-217.
The fingers in the adult human hand differ in length and in distal extent. The literature agrees that in the clear majority of males, the distal extent of the ring finger tends to be relatively greater (using the middle finger as standard) than the index finger. However, the results for females vary considerably, with some studies reporting that females show a similar pattern to that of males, while others suggest that the prevalence of a longer index finger is relatively or absolutely more comm...

Rak Y; Ginzburg A; Geffen E. 2002. Does Homo neanderthalensis play a role in modern human ancestry? The mandibular evidence. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 119:199-204.
Data obtained from quantifying the upper part of the mandibular ramus (the coronoid process, the condylar process, and the notch between them) lead us to conclude that Neandertals (both Europeand and Middle Eastern) differ more from Homo sapiens (early specimens such as Tabun II, Skhul, and Qafzeh, as well as contemporary populations from as far apart as Alaska and Australia) than the latter differs from Homo erectus. The specialized Neandertal mandibular ramus morphology emerges as yet another...

Reader SM;Laland KN. 2002. Social intelligence, innovation, and enhanced brain size in primates Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United Sates of America, 99:4436-4441.
Despite considerable current interest in the evolution of intelligence, the intuitively appealing notion that brain volume and "intelligence" are linked remains untested. Here, we use ecologically relevant measures of cognitive ability, the reported incidence of behavioral innovation, social learning, and tool use, to show that brain size and cognitive capacity are indeed correlated. A comparative analysis of 533 instances of innovation, 445 observations of social learning, and 607 episodes of t...

Ross AH; Ubelaker DH; Falsetti AB. 2002. Craniometric variation in the Americas Human Biology, 74(6):807-819.
Craniofacial variation is investigated in Latin America and the Caribbean. The samples included in this study are two historic and one prehistoric sample from Ecuador; prehistoric and modem Cuban samples; a prehistoric Peruvian sample; two prehistoric Mexican samples and one contemporary admixed Mexican sample; a 16th/17th-century Spanish sample; and Terry blacks. Biological distance is investigated using traditional craniometrics by computing size and shape variables according to Mosimann and c...

Sanders G, Sjodin M, and M de Chastelaine. 2002. On the elusive nature of sex differences in cognition: hormonal influences contributing to within-sex variation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31:145-152.
We argue that within-sex variation resulting from the prenatal organizational and adult activational effects of gonadal steroid hormones has the potential to obscure between sex differences in cognitive performance and functional cerebral asymmetry. Two putative markers for prenatal testosterone, finger ridge count (FRC) asymmetry and the 2D:4D finger length ratio, have been linked to within-sex variation in cognitive performance. In particular, FRC allows the identification of men and women who...

Silva WA, Bonatto SL, Holanda AJ, Ribeiro-dos-Santos AK, Paizao BM, Goldman GH, Abe-Sandes K, Rodriguez-Delfin L, Barbosa M, Paco-Larson ML, Petzl-Erler ML, Valente V, Santos SEB and MA Zago. 2002. Mitochondrial genome diversity of Native Americans supports a single early entry of founder populations into Americas. American Journal of Human Genetics, 71:187-192.
none available...

Simpson E; Henneberg M. 2002. Variation in soft tissue thicknesses on the human face and their relation to craniometric dimensions. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 118:121-133.
The average thickness of soft tissues on parts of the face is known, but its variation has not been related to cranial morphology. To investigate this relationship, measurements of facial soft-tissue depths and craniometric dimensions were taken on adult, white Australian cadavers (17 male and 23 female). Significant correlations between many soft-tissue depths and craniometric dimensions were found, suggesting a relationship between the amount of soft tissue present on the face and the size of ...

Spielmann KA. 2002. Feasting, craft specialization, and the ritual mode of production in small-scale societies American Anthropologist, 104:195-207.
Economic intensification has been documented in a diversity of small-scale societies. The existing archaeological theory concerning such intensification has tended to privilege economic and political explanations and largely ignores social action and ritual performance as motivations for economic change. In this article, 1 use both ethnographic and archaeological data to argue that ceremonial feasting and the need for socially valued goods, which are critical for ritual performance and necessary...

Varela,HH; Cocilovo, JA. 2002. Genetic drift and gene flow in a prehistoric population of the Azapa valley and coast, Chile American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 118:259-267.
The present paper studies the evolutionary process operating on prehistoric groups from the Azapa valley and coast (northern Chile). The sample consists of 237 crania from the Archaic Late, Early Intermediate, Middle, Late Intermediate, and Late Periods. Six metric variables were used, which were transformed to eliminate the special environmental component and to increase the proportion of genetic variance. Population structure was assessed using a method based on quantitative genetic theory, wh...

Videan EN; McGrew WC. 2002. Bipedality in chimpanzee (pan troglodytes) and bonobo (pan paniscus): testing hypotheses on the evolution of bipedalism. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 118:184-190.
A host of ecological, anatomical, and physiological selective pressures are hypothesized to have played a role in the evolution of hominid bipedalism. A referential model, based on the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus), was used to test through exerimental manipulation four hypotheses on the evolution of hominid bipedalism. The introduction of food piles (Carry hypothesis) increased locomotor bipedality in both species. Neither the introduction of branches (Display hypoth...

Wells JCK; Cole TJ. 2002. Birth weight and environmental heat load: a between-population analysis American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 119:276-282.
Low birth weight, a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality, is caused by different factors in Western and developing-country populations. In addition to differing in terms of ethnicity, maternal size, maternal nutritional status, and disease load, developing-country and Western populations are also characterized by different environmental heat loads. Thermodynamic theory predicts that heat stress is mitigated by reduced size of both mother and offspring, and therefore generates th...

Zollikofer CPE, de Leon MSP, Vandermeersch B, et al.. 2002. Evidence for interpersonal violence in the St. Cesaire Neanderthal PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 99:6444-6448.
The St. Cesaire 1 Neanderthal skeleton of a young adult individual is unique in its association with Chatelperronian artifacts from a level dated to ca. 36,000 years ago. Computer-tomographic imaging and computer-assisted reconstruction of the skull revealed a healed fracture in the cranial vault. When paleopathological and forensic diagnostic standards are applied, the bony scar bears direct evidence for the impact of a sharp implement, which was presumably directed toward the individual during...

Eckhardt RB. 2003. Polymorphisms Past and Present Human Biology, 75:559-579.
Polymorphisms, particularly genetic variants of red blood cell, have served as a major focus for the research of Frank B. Livingstone over the course of a long and productive career. Recent investigations confirm the value of key insights that he contributed to this area more than four decades ago. As Livingstone recognized, the same underlying evolutionary model that guides genetic studies in present populations also provides a productive framework for interpreting patterns of variation in th...

Blackwell LR; d'Errico F. 2003. Additional Evidence on the Early Hominid Bone Tools from Swartkrans with Reference to Spacial Distribution of Lithic and Organic Artefacts. South African Journal of Science, 99:259-266.
Previous research showed that 68 bone fragments from the early hominid site of Swartkrans (Members 1-3; c. 1.8-1.0 Myr), bearing a characteristic wear pattern not found in bone assemblages accumulated by non-human factors, could be interpreted as tools used by early hominids in digging activities to extract tubers or termites. Here we describe 16 additional bone tools from the same site and study the enlarged bone tool collection in search of patterns of variation among members. No signif...

Brosius J. 2003. From Eden to a hell of uniformity? Directed evolution in humans. Bioessays, 25:815-821.
For the first time during evolution of life on this planet, a species has acquired the ability to direct its own genetic destiny. Following 200,000 years of evolution, modern man now has the technologies not only to eradicate genetic disease but also to prolong life and enhance desired physical and mental traits. These technologies include preimplantation diagnosis, cloning, and gene therapy in the germline on native chromosomes or by adding artificial ones. At first glance, we should al...

Cameron DW. 2003. Early hominin speciation at the Plio/Pleistocene transition. HOMO, 54:1 - 28.
Over the last half-decade or so, there has been an explosion in the recognition of hominin genera and species. We now have the late Miocene genera Orrorin and Sahelanthropus, the mid Pliocene genus Kenyanthropus, three new Pliocene species of Australopithecus (A. anamensis, A. garhi and A. bahrelghazali) and a sub species of Ardipithecus (Ar. r. kadabba) to contend with. Excepting also the more traditional species allocated to Paranthropus, Australopithecus and early Homo we are approaching arou...

Crooks DL. 2003. Trading nutrition for Education: nutritional status and the Sale of Snack Foods in an eastern Kentucky School. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 17:182-199.

Overweight and poor nutrition of children in the United States are becoming issues of increasing concern for public health. Dietary patters of U.S. children indicate they are consuming too few fruits and vegetables and too many foods high in fat and sugar. Contributing to this pattern of food consumption is snacking, which is reported to be on the increase among adults and children alike. One place where snacking is under increasing scrutiny, and where it is being increasingly criticized,...

Cucina A; Tiesler V. 2003. Dental Caries and Antemortem Tooth Loss in the Northern Peten Area, Mexico: A Biocultural Perspective on Social Status Differences Among the Classic Maya American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 122:1-10.
Dental caries and antemortem tooth loss (AMTL) are investigated in a Classic Maya sample obtained from the sites of Calakmul, Dzibanché, and Kohunlich (Mexico). This study aims at assessing the effect that sex and social status had on the prevalence of oral pathologies. The lack of a direct relationship between caries, AMTL, and age-at-death led us to interpret the results in terms of the biological, socioeconomic, and behavioral conditions prevailing in these ancient Maya settlements. Benefits...

Dirks W. 2003. Effect of Diet on Dental Development in Four Species of Catarrhine Primates. American Journal of Primatology, 61:29-40.
In this study, dental development is described in two pairs of closely related catarrhine primate species that differ in their degree of folivory: 1) Hylobates lar and Symphalangus syndactylus, and 2) Papio hamadryas hamadryas and Semnopithecus entellus. Growth increments in histological thin sections are used to reconstruct the chronology of dental development to determine how dental development is accelerated in the more folivorous species of each pair. Although anterior tooth formation appear...

Fessler DMT; Navarrete CD . 2003. Meat is good to taboo: dietary proscriptions as a product of the interaction of psychological mechanisms and social processes Journal of Cognition and Culture, 3:1 - 40.
Comparing Food Taboos across 78 cultures, this paper demonstrates that meat, though a prized food, is also the principal target of proscriptions. Reviewing existing explanations of taboos, we find that both functionalist and symbolic approaches fail to account for meat’s cross cultural centrality and do not reflect experience-near aspects of food taboos, principal among disgust. Adopting an evolutionary approach to the mind, this paper presents an alternative to existing explanations of food t...

Greenawalt, Kent. 2003. Intelligent Design: Scientific Theory or Religious Conviction? Journal of Church and State, 45:238-257.
The article, Intelligent Design: Scientific Theory or Religious Conviction, was written by Kent Greenawalt, a law Professor of law at Columbia University. He explains the meaning of intelligent design and brings up the debate whether or not is should be taught in public schools science courses. Greenawalt argues that only facts and testable scientific methods should be taught in public schools. ...

Gursky S. 2003. Lunar Philia in a Nocturnal Primate. International Journal of Primatology, 24:351-367.
The influence of moonlight on behavior has been well documented for many nocturnal mammals, including rodents, lagomorphs, badgers and bats. These studies have consistently shown that nocturnal mammals respond to bright moonlight by reducing their foraging activity, restricting their movement, and reducing their vocalizations. Lunar phobia among nocturnal mammals is generally believed to be a form of predator avoidance: numerous studies indicate that predation increases during moonlit nights. A ...

Hedrick PW. 2003. Hopi Indians, "cultural" selection and albinism American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 121:151-156.
The incidence of albinism in Hopi Indians has been estimated as approximately 1 in 200 individuals. It has been suggested that “cultural” selection as the result of a mating advantage of males with albinism has been important in the maintenance of this high incidence. To examine this hypothesis quantitatively, a model that includes male-mating advantage, mutation, and viability selection is analyzed. In order to play an important role in the maintenance of the high incidence of albinism,...

Huffman, MA. 2003. Animal self-medication and ethno-medicine: exploration and exploitation of the medicinal properties of plants Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 62:371-381.
Early in the co-evolution of plant-animal relationships, some arthropod species began to utilize the chemical defenses of plants to protect themselves from their own predators and parasites. It is likely, therefore, that the origins of herbal medicine have their roots deep within the animal kingdom. From prehistoric times man has looked to wild and domestic animals for sources of herbal remedies. Both folklore and living examples provide accounts of how medicinal plants were obtained by obser...

Lee-Thorp JA; Sponheimer M; Van der Merwe NJ. 2003. What do Stable Isotopes tell us about Hominid Dietary and Ecological Niches in the Pliocene? International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 13:104-113.
By now a reasonable set of carbon and oxygen isotope data from tooth enamel has been accumulated for South African Plio-Pleistocene hominids and associated fauna. Almost all individuals measured, independent of species and importantly, environment, show significant C4 inputs. This implies interactions with grassy environments for a period of well over a million years, a period that saw environments in southern Africa shift from closed woodlands to more open, grassy landscapes. Carbon isotope ana...

Leslie PW; Little MA. 2003. Human biology and ecology: Variation in nature and the nature of variation American Anthropologist, 105:28-37.
Human biology seeks to understand human variation and the biological, environmental, social, and historical influences on that variation. Views of the nature of both variation and environment have changed during the past 100 years. Typological approaches to nature and human diversity shifted to an evolutionary perspective during the first half of the 20th century. In the second half, widespread human biological variation was documented and interpreted in terms of adaptation to the environment. E...

Lieberman LS. 2003. Dietary, evolutionary and modernizing influences on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Annual Review of Nutrition, 23:345 - 377.
An evolutionary perspective is used to elucidate the etiology of the current epidemic of type 2 diabetes estimated at 151million people. Our primate legacy, fossil hominid, and hunting-gathering lifestyles selected for adaptive metabolically thrifty genotypes and phenotypes are rendered deleterious through modern lifestyles that increase energy input and reduce output. The processes of modernization or globalization include the availability and abundance of calorically dense/low-fiber/highglyc...

Mace R; Jordan F; Holden C. 2003. Testing evolutionary hypotheses about human biological adaptation using cross-cultural comparison. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 136:85 - 94.
Physiological data from a range of human populations living in different environments can provide valuable information for testing evolutionary hypotheses about human adaptation. By taking into account the effects of population history, phylogenetic comparative methods can help us determine whether variation results from selection due to particular environmental variables. These selective forces could even be due to cultural traits—which means that gene-culture co-evolution may be occurring. In ...

Madrigal L; Relethford JH; Crawford MH. 2003. Heritability and anthropomorphic influences on human fertility. American Journal of Human Biology, 15:16-22.
This study researched the impact of anthropometrics and size-of-family of orientation on women’s fertility by using path analysis. The data were collected as part of the anthropological study conducted in Ireland by Harvard University personnel before the Second World War. The women included in this analysis were all over age 49 and were either married or widowed at the time of the survey. Our results indicate that the heritability of fertility is moderate in this sample and that there is a tend...

Partridge TC; Granger DE; Caffee MW; Clark RJ. 2003. Lower Pliocene Hominid Remains from Sterkfontein. Science, 300:607-613.
Cosmogenic aluminum-26 and beryllium-10 burial dates of low-lying fossiliferous breccia in the caves at Sterkfontein, South Africa, show that associated hominid fossils accumulated in the Lower Pliocene. These dates indicate that the skeleton StW 573 and newly discovered specimens from Jacovec Cavern have much the same age: approximately 4 million years. These specimens are thus of an age similar to Australopithecus anamensis from East Africa. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]...

Pennock RT. 2003. Creationism and Intelligent Design. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, 4:143-163.
Creationism, the rejection of evolution in favor of supernatural design, comes in many varieties besides the common young-earth Genesis version. Creationist attacks on science education have been evolving in the last few years through the alliance of different varieties. Instead of calls to teach "creation science," one now finds lobbying for "intelligent design" (ID). Guided by the Discovery Institute's "Wedge strategy," the ID movement aims to overturn evolution and what it sees as a perniciou...

Penny D; Hendy MD; Poole AM. 2003. Testing Fundamental Evolutionary Hypotheses. Journal of Theoretical Biology., 223:377-385.
Sober and Steel (J. Theor. Biol. 218 395-408) give important limits on the use of current models with sequence data for studying ancient aspects of evolution; but they go too far in suggesting that several fundamental aspects of evolutionary theory cannot be tested in a normal scientific manner. To the contrary, we show examples of how some alternatives to the theory of descent can be formulated in such a way that they lead to predictions that can be evaluated (and rejected). The critical factor...

Pigliucci M, Kaplan J. 2003. On the concept of biological race and its applicability to humans Philosophy of Science, 70:1161 - 117.
Biological research on race has often been seen as motivated by or lending credence to underlying racist attitudes in part for this reason, recently philosophers and biologists have gone through great pains to essentially deny the existence of biological human races. We argue that human races, in the biological sense of local populations adapted to particular environments, do in fact exist; such races are best understood through the common ecological concept of ecotypes. However, human ecotypic ...

Pika S; Lieba K; Tomasell, M. 2003. Gestural Communication in Young Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla): Gestural Repertoire, Learning, and Use. American Journal of Primatology, 60:95-111.
In the present study we investigated the gestural communication of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla). The subjects were 13 gorillas (1-6 years old) living in tow different groups in captivity. Our goal was to compile the gestural repertoire of subadult gorillas, with a special focus on processes of social cognition, including attention to individual and developmental variability, group variability, and flexibility of use. Thirty-three different gestures (six auditory, 11 tactile and 16 visual gestures)...

Sandgathe M; Hayden B. 2003. Did Neanderthals eat inner Bark? Antiquity, 77:709-718.
The recent publication of a series of modified, pointed mammoth ribs from the Middle Paleolithic site of Salzgitter-Lebenstedt has raised several issues about Neanderthal mental and motor capabilities (Gaudzinski 1999). No strong suggestions as to what these objects might have been used for have been put forward. We would like to suggest that these, and other bone, antler, and wooden items recovered from European Paleolithic sites, may have been bark peelers used to procure inner bark from tre...

Schapiro SJ; Bloomsmith MA; Laule GE. 2003. Positive Reinforcement Training As a Technique to Alter Nonhuman Primate Behavior: Quantitative Assessments of Effectiveness Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 6:175-187.
Many suggest that operant conditioning techniques can be applied successfully to improve behavioral management of nonhuman primates in research settings. However, relatively little empirical data exist to support this claim. This article is a review of several studies that discussed applied positive reinforcement training techniques (PRT) on breeding/research colonies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodyte) at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center and...

Seely MR. 2003. DNA, Intelligent Design and Misleading Metaphors: What makes ID so intuitively appealing? Free Inquiry, 23:37-41.
Refutes the validity of intelligent design argument to account for the workings of nature. Methodology of science; Religious agenda of people who employ intelligent design argument to prove that the natural world was designed for a purpose and that their is a designer of the natural world; Discussion on the basis of modern intelligent design argument....

Seiffert ER; Simons EL; Yousry A. 2003. Title: Fossil evidence for an ancient divergence of lorises and galagos. Authors: Seiffert, Erik R. Simons, Elwyn L. Attia, Yousry Source: Nature; 3/27/2003, Vol. 422 Issue 6930, p421, 4p Document Type: Abstract: Morphological, molecular, and biogeogra Nature, 422:421-425.
Morphological, molecular, and biogeographic data bearing on early primate evolution suggest that the clade containing extant (or 'crown') strepsirrhine primates (lemurs, lorises and galagos) arose in Afro-Arabia during the early Palaeogene, but over a century of palaeontological exploration on that landmass has failed to uncover any conclusive support for that hypothesis. Here we describe the first demonstrable crown strepsirrhines from the Afro-Arabian Palaeogene-a galagid and a possible lorisi...

Sponheimer M;Lee-Throp JA. 2003. Differential Resource utilization by extant great Apes and Australopithecines: towards solving the C4 conundrum. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A, 136:27-34.
Morphological and biogeochemical evidence suggest that australopithecines had diets markedly different then those of extant great apes. Stable carbon isotope analysis, for example, has shown that significant amounts of the carbon consumed by australopithecines were derived from C4 photosynthesis in plants. This means that australopithecines were eating large quantities of C4 plants such as tropical grasses and sedges, or were eating animals that were themselves eating C4 plants. In contrast, ...

Toussaint GA Macho; Tobias PV ; Partridge TC; Hughes AR. 2003. The third partial skeleton of a late Pliocene hominin (Stw 431) from Sterkfontein, South Africa South African Journal of Science, 99:215-223.
Partial skeletons of ancient hominins are extremely rare. When located, they present unique opportunities for palaeo-anthropological enquiry. From East African Pliocene and early Pleistocene sites, two associated skeletons, AL.288-1 assigned to Australopithecus aferensis, and OH 62 (Homo habilis) are well-known. Other examples are KNM-ER 1500, the diseased skeleton, KNM-ER 1808, and the very complete and also diseased skeleton of the Nariokotome boy, from west of Lake Turkana, Kenya, both of the...

Van Schaik CP;Fox EA;Fechtman LT. 2003. Individual variation in the rate of use of Tree-Hole Tools among wild Orang-utans: implications for Hominin Evolution.” Journal of Human Evolution, 44:11-23.
Primate tool use varies among species, populations, and individuals. Individual variation is especially poorly understood. Orang-utans in the Sumatran swamp forest of Suaq Balimbing varied widely in the rates of tool use to extract honey bits or termites from tree holes in the degree to which they specialize on this tree hole use. We tested weather individual variation was best explained by effects of social dominance, habitat differences or by opportunities for socially learning the skills d...

Wong,K. 2003. An ancestor to call our own. Scientific American, 13:4-13.
This review article does not include an abstract. The author looks at the recent discoveries of ancient anthropoids and considers how the new evidence weighs into reconstructing the Homo lineage. ...

Wrangham R; Conklin-Brittain N. 2003. ‘Cooking as a biological trait’ Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 2003 Part A , 136:35-46.
No human foragers have been recorded as living without cooking, and people who choose a ‘raw-foodist’ life-style experience low energy and impaired reproductive function. This suggests that cooking may be obligatory for humans. The possibility that cooking is obligatory is supported by calculations suggesting that a diet of raw food could not supply sufficient calories for a normal hunter-gatherer lifestyle. In particular, many plant foods are too fiber-rich when raw, while most raw meat appe...

Ackermann RR; Cheverud JM. 2004. Detecting genetic drift versus selection in human evolution PNAS, 101:17946-1795.
Recent paleoanthropological discoveries reveal a diverse, potentially speciose human fossil record. Such extensive morphological diversity results from the action of divergent evolutionary forces on an evolving lineage. Here, we apply quantitative evolutionary theory to test whether random evolutionary processes alone can explain the morphological diversity seen among fossil australopith and early Homo crania from the Plio–Pleistocene. We show that although selection may have played an important...

Alexeyeff K. 2004. Love Food: Exchange and Sustenance in the Cook Islands Diaspora Australian Journal of Anthropology, 15:68-79.
This paper analyses the dynamics of food exchange among Cook Islanders. The majority of Cook Islanders live abroad (primarily in New Zealand and Australia), familial and community relationships are maintained by frequent visits to and from the Cook Islands. For many Cook Islanders, the difference between home and abroad is signified through food. Its lack in New Zealand is contrasted with the bounty of home, bounty of food, and the bounty of sustaining caring relationships. As a result, when Coo...

Cassidy J; Raab LM; Kononenko NA. 2004. Boats, bones, and biface bias: The Early Holocene mariners of Eel Point, San Clemente Island, California American Antiquity, 69:109-130.
By 8000 B.P., sea-mammal hunting and open-sea voyages were established at Eel Point, San Clemente Island, California. The early inhabitants of Eel Point depended heavily on sea-mammal hunting and shellfish collecting, rather than the intensive fishing that developed during the Late Holocene along the Southern California coast. Eel Point technological capabilities rivaled those of Late Holocene groups such as the Chumash Indians, including the ability to fabricate sophisticated watercraft. The...

Chaplin G. 2004. Geographic distribution of envirnomental factors influencing human skin coloration American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 125:292-302.
Skin coloration in indigenous peoples is strongly related to levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). In this study, the relationships of skin reflectance to seasonal UVR levels and other environmental variables were investigated, with the aim of determining which variables contributed most significantly to skin reflectance. The UVR data recorded by satellite were combined with environmental variables and data on human skin reflectance in a geographic information system (GIS). These were t...

Currat M; Excoffier L. 2004. Modern humans did not admix with Neanderthals during their range expansion into Europe. PLOS Biology, 2:2264 - 227.
The process by which Neanderthals were replaced by modern humans between 42,000 and 30,000 before present is still intriguing. Although no Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineage is found to date among several thousands of Europeans, interbreeding rates as high as 25% could not be excluded between the two subspecies. In this study, we introduce a realistic model of range expansion of early modern humans into Europe, and their competition and potential admixture with the local Neanderthal...

de Beaune SA. 2004. The invention of technology: prehistory and cognition Current Anthropology, 45(2):139-162.
Technical study of tools made from unknapped stone from early times to the Neolithic has allowed the identification of marks found on these tools and inferences from them about the actions they involved. On the basis of this analysis, a schema is proposed for the evolution of technical actions. It seems that we have here a concrete example of a mechanism of technical innovation and that this mechanism may be simply an illustration of a more general schema of the evolution of technology. Comparin...

Dressler WW; Ribeiro RP; Balieiro MC; Oths KS; Santos JED. 2004. Eating, drinking and being depressed: the social, cultural and psychological context of Alcohol consumption and nutrition in a Brazilian Community Social Science and Medicine, 59:709-720.

Much has been written about the socioeconomic distribution of nutritional status, both in more economically developed, and in developing nations. In general, persons of lower socioeconomic status suffer adverse consequences of poor nutritional status, although these consequences can vary depending on the level of development, i.e. in more developed countries the problem tends to be one of over-nutrition and obesity, while in developing countries the problem tends to be one of under nutritio...

Fix AG. 2004. Kin-structured migration: causes and consequences. American Journal of Human Biology, 16:387-394.
Migration among local populations classically has been seen as the principal process retarding genetic microdifferentiation. However, as Sewall Wright pointed out long ago, migration may also act as a random differentiating force. In fact, when migrants comprise a biological kin group, migration may be considered a component of genetic drift. The causes of kin-structured migration (KSM) lie in the common, if not universal, tendency for kin to associate and cooperate. However, similar to gen...

Fuentes A. 2004. It's not all sex and violence: Integrated anthropology and the role of cooperation and social complexity in human evolution AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, 106:710-718.
Social scientists, especially anthropologists, have long endeavored to understand the evolution of "human nature." This investigation frequently focuses on the relative importance of competition versus cooperation in human evolutionary trajectories and usually results in a primary emphasis on competition, aggression, and even war in attempting to understand humanity. This perspective conflicts with long-standing perspectives in anthropology and some emerging trends and theory in evolutionary bio...

Gannett L. 2004. The biological reification of Race. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 55:323-345.
A consensus view appears to prevail among academics from diverse disciplines that biological races do not exist, at least in humans, and that race-concepts and race-objects are socially constructed. The consensus view has been challenged recently by Robin O. Andreasen’s cladistic account of biological race. This paper argues that from a scientific viewpoint there are methodological, empirical, and conceptual problems with Andreasen’s position, and that from a philosophical perspective Andrease...

Gebo DL. 2004. A shrew-sized origin for primates. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 47:40-62.
The origin of primates has had a long history of discussion and debate, with few ever considering the impact of the original body weight on subsequent primate adaptive radiations. Here, I attempt to reconstruct early primate evolution by considering the initial size of primates as well as the critical functional-adaptive events that had to occur prior to the early Eocene. Microcebus is often viewed as a living model, and thus 40-65 g might represent a practical ancestral weight for the origin ...

Hall R; Roy D; Boling D. 2004. Pleistocene migration routes into the Americas: human biological adaptations and environmental constraints Evolutionary Anthropology, 13:132-144.
Theories about the routes and timing of human entry into the Americas during the Late Pleistocene usually involves models of lowered seal levels and ice-free land in Beringia, supported by locations and dates of archaeological sites in Northeastern Asia and Northwestern America. Recently, paleoecological reconstructions made possible by advances in geochronology and climatology have received attention. Now morphological adaptations and environmental constraints that affect human activities and...

Lokko P; Kirkmeyer S; Mattes RD. 2004. A cross-cultural comparison of appetitive and dietary responses to food challenges. Food Quality and Preference, 15:129-136.
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Cross-cultural comparisons of appetitive and dietary responses to foods should provide mechanistic insights on the global obesity prevalence pattern. Healthy, normal weight, adult, Americans (N=24) and Ghanaians (N=29) participated in eight food challenges. After an overnight fast, appetite was rated and saliva was collected before and after viewing/smelling the day’s food challenges (peanuts, peanut butter, almonds, chocolate, chestnuts, pickles, rice cakes or no load). Appetitive...

Luis C; Roe D; Urbanc B; Cabra H; Stanley HE; Rosene DL. 2004. Age-related reduction in microcolumnar structure in area 46 of the Rhesus monkey correlates with behavioral decline Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101:15846-1585.
Many age-related declines in cognitive function are attributed to the prefrontal cortex, area 46 being especially critical. Yet in normal aging, studies indicate that neurons are not lost in area 46, suggesting that impairments result from more subtle processes. One cortical feature that is functionally important, but that has not been examined in normal aging because of a lack of efficient quantitative methods, is the vertical arrangement of neurons into microcolumns, a fundamental computationa...

Milton K. 2004. Ferment in the family tree: does a frugivorous dietary heritage influence contemporary patterns of human ethanol use? Integrative and Comparative Biology, 44:304 - 314.
Humans and apes are placed together in the superfamily Hominoidea. The evolutionary trajectory of hominoids is intimately bound up with the exploitation of ripe, fleshy fruits. Fermentation of fruit sugars by yeasts produces a number of alcohols, particularly ethanol. Because of their pre-human frugivorous dietary heritage, it has been hypothesized that humans may show pre-existing sensory biases associating ethanol with nutritional rewards. This factor, in turn, could influence contemporary pat...

Monarrez-Espino J; Greiner T;Hoyos RC. 2004. Perception of food and body shape as dimensions of western acculturation potentially linked to overweight in Tarahumara women of Mexico. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 43:193-212.


A recent survey in northern Mexico found that 52.8% of adult Tarahumara women were overweight. A process of “de-indianization” of their diet was hypothesized. The present study aimed at exploring food and body shape perceptions as dimensions contributing to the role that Western acculturation could be playing in increasing overweight in this isolated indigenous population. Data were obtained from structured interviews of a type commonly used in cognitive anthropology. Partial rank or...

Mustillo S; Krieker N; Gunderson EP; Sydney S; McCreath H; Kiefe CI. 2004. Self-reported experiences of racial discrimination and Black-White differences in preterm and low-birthweight deliveries: The CARDIA study American Journal of Public Health, 94(12):2125-2131.
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Nakhnikian, G. 2004. It Ain't Necessarily So: An Essay Review of Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics: Philosophical, Theological, and Scientific Perspectives Philosophy of Science, 71:593 - 604.
George Nakhnikian reviews Robert T Pennock’s Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics: Philosophical, Theological, and Scientific Perspectives. The book itself is a compilation of articles providing the perspectives of critics of the evolutionary model and the evolutionists’ responses to these critiques. Nakhnikian makes no secret his favor of the latter group in these debates. Within the review he provides his own criticism of the concept of Intelligent Design Creationism (IDC). Th...

NJB Isaac; G Cowlishaw. 2004. How Species Respond to Multiple Extinction Threats Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 271:1135–114.
It is well established that different species vary in their vulnerability to extinction risk and that species biology can underpin much of this variation. By contrast, very little is known about how the same species responds to different threat processes. The purpose of this paper is therefore twofold: to examine the extent to which a species’ vulnerability to different types of threat might covary and to explore the biological traits that are associated with threat-specific responses. We use an...

Plavcan JM, Lockwood CA, Kimbel WH, Lague MR, Harmon EH. 2004. Sexual dimorphism in Australopithecus afarensis revisited: How strong is the case for a human-like pattern of dimorphism? JOURNAL OF HUMAN EVOLUTION, 48:313 - 320.
Reno et al. claim that sexual dimorphism in Australopithecus afarensis was similar to that of modern humans based upon post-cranial analysis. They conclude that, when compared with modern humans and apes, A. afarensis lies closer to the former and that this suggests they were primarily monogamous. Plavcan et al. critique this study and present data of their own to demonstrate that sexual dimorphism in A. afarensis was more likely somewhere between chimpanzees and gorillas, a...

Potts R. 2004. Paleoenvironmental basis of cognitive evolution in great apes. American Journal of Primatology, 62:209-228.
A bias favoring tree-dominated habitats and ripe-fruit frugivory has persisted in great ape evolution since the early Miocene. This bias is indicated by fossil ape paleoenvironments, molar morphology, dental microwear, the geographic pattern of extinctions, and extant apes’ reliance on wooded settings. The ephemeral aspect of high-quality fruit has placed a premium on cognitive and social means of finding and defending food sources, and appears related to great apes’ affinity since the Miocene f...

Relethford, JH. 2004. Boas and beyond: migration and craniometric variation American journal of human biology, 16:379-386.
Migration is expected to affect craniometric variation in three ways: 1) movement into a different environment leading to developmental plasticity; 2) movement into a different environment followed by in situ adaptation through natural selection; and 3) changes in among-group differentiation and genetic distance through the action of gene flow. The relative influence of these three factors has been argued in the literature, most recently in a series of articles debating the statistical and biol...

Renzaho AMN. 2004. Fat, rich and beautiful: changing socio-cultural paradigms associated with obesity risk, nutritional status and refugee children from sub-Saharan Africa Health & Place, 10:105-113.
There has been an increase in Australia's intake of refugees and migrants from sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades. These refugees have been exposed to nutritional risks prior to migration, which, together with changes associated with acculturation, impact on their health and nutritional status post-migration. However, there is a paucity of data in Australia that has examined the health and nutritional status of this ethnic minority in Australia. Despite basic research assessing the nut...

Ross AH. 2004. Regional isolation in the Balkan region: an analysis of craniofacial variation. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 124:73-80.
Biological variation is investigated among contemporary Croatians, Bosnians, American whites, and other multitemporal Balkan populations (World War II Croatians, Macedonians, and Greeks) via multivariate statistics and distance measures of the craniofacial complex. This study demonstrates that there is considerable variation among groups of European ancestry. Bosnians and Croatians who are thought to be relatively homogenous and historically to originate from the same Slav ancestry show local va...

Ross AH. 2004. Cranial evidence of pre-contact multiple population expansions in the Caribbean CARIBBEAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 40:291-298.
The most recognized Caribbean population dispersal hypothesis is a direct jump from South America followed by dispersal into the Lesser Antilles and westward. This evidence primarily comes from the archaeological record, as skeletal material is scarce in the Caribbean due to generally poor preservation. This study evaluated the direct jump hypothesis along with other possible migration routes using cranial landmark data. A study of three-dimensional facial shape variation among pre-Contact Taino...

Schmitt DP; Pilcher JJ. 2004. Evaluating evidence of psychological adaptation - How do we know one when we see one? PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE, 15:643-649.
Evolutionary psychologists argue that human nature contains many discrete psychological adaptations. Each adaptation is theorized to have been functional in humans' ancestral past, and empirical evidence that an attribute is an adaptation can come from showing it possesses complexity, efficiency, universality, and other features of special design. In this article, we present a tutorial review of the evidentiary forms that evolutionary psychologists commonly use to document the existence of human...

Schmitt DP; Pilcher JJ. 2004. Evaluating Evidence of Psychological Adapation How Do We Know One When We See One? Psychological Science, 15:643.
Evolutionary psychologists argue that human nature contains many discrete psychological adaptations. Each adaptation is theorized to have been functional in humans’ ancestral past, and empirical evidence that an attribute is an adaptation can come from showing it possesses complexity, efficiency, universality, and other features of special design. In this article, we present a tutorial review of the evidentiary forms that evolutionary psychologists commonly use to document the existence of human...

Schwartz MW; Niswender KD. 2004. Adiposity signaling and biological defense against weight gain: absence of protection or central hormone resistance The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89:5889-5897.

An abundant and compelling literature supports the existence of a homeostatic system that dynamically adjusts energy intake and energy expenditure to promote stability of body fat mass. In the context of this system, the case with which many individuals gain weight is difficult to explain. Some have argued that energy homeostasis operates primarily to defend against weight loss and that over the course of evolution biological defense against weight gain was not selected for. According to ...

Schwartz, GT; Miller ER; Gunnell GF. 2004. Developmental processes and canine dimorphism in primate evolution Journal of Human Evolution, 48:97-103.
Understanding the evolutionary history of canine sexual dimorphism is important for interpreting the developmental biology, socioecology, and phylogenetic position of primates. All current evidence for extant primates indicates that canine dimorphism is achieved through bimaturism rather then via differences in rates of crown formation time. Using incremental growth lines, we charted the ontogeny of canine formation within species of Eocene Cantius, the earliest known canine-dimorphic primate,...

Serre D; Langaney A; Chech M; Teschler-Nicola M; Paunovic M; Mennecier P; Hofreiter M; Possnert G; Paabo S. 2004. No evidence of Neanderthal mtDNA contribution to early modern humans. PLoS Biology, 2:0313-0317.
The retrieval of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from four Neandertal fossils from Germany, Russia, and Croatia has demonstrated that these individuals carried closely related mtDNAs that are not found among current humans. However, these results do not definitively resolve the question of a possible Neandertal contribution to the gene pool of modern humans since such a contribution might have been erased by genetic drift or by the continuous influx of modern human DNA into the Neande...

Tattersall, Ian. 2004. What happened in the origin of human consciousness? The Anatomical Record, 276B:19-26.
At some point in its evolutionary history, our species Homo sapiens ceased to be a nonlinguistic, nonsymbolic organism, living in the world as presented to it by Nature, and instead began to exist in a world that it reconstructs in its own mind. Most scientists since Darwin have been content to explain this extraordinary transformation in human consciousness by the operation of natural selection. However, the human fossil and archaeological records indicate that modern human symbolic consciousn...

Unger JB; Reynolds K; Shakib S; Spruijit-Metz D; Ping S; Anderson JC. 2004. Acculturation, physical activity, and fast food consumption of asian-american and hispanic adolescents Journal of Community Health, 29:467 - 481.
Previous studies have implicated acculturation to the US as a risk factor for unhealthy behaviors among Hispanic and Asian- American adolescents, including substance use, violence, and unsafe sex. This study examined the association between acculturation and obesity-related behaviors—physical activity and fast-food consumption—among 619 Asian-American and 1385 Hispanic adolescents in Southern California. Respondents completed surveys in 6th and 7th grade. The 6th grade survey assessed acculturat...

Wang Y; Su B. 2004. Molecular evolution of microcephalin, a gene determining human brain size Human Molecular Genetics, 13:1131-1137.
Microcephalin gene is one of the major players in regulating human brain development. It was reported that truncated mutations in this gene can cause primary microcephaly in humans with a brain size comparable with that of early hominids. We studied the molecular evolution of microcephalin by sequencing the coding region of microcephalin gene in humans and 12 representative non-human primate species covering great apes, lesser apes, Old World monkeys and New World monkeys. Our results showed tha...

Wiley AS. 2004. "Drink Milk for Fitness": The Cultural Politics of Human Bilogical Variation and Milk Consumption in the United States. American Anthropologist, 106:506-517.
Cow’s milk is accorded a high cultural value in the contemporary United States. Its white color, association with the maternal and the pastoral, and repeated mention in the Bible add positive symbolic weight to this major national agricultural commodity. Thus, it comes as no surprise that influential policy-making institutions in the United States recommend milk consumption for all U.S. groups. This is despite variation in adult populations’ abilities to digest milk, which has been documented by...

Zilberman U; Smith P; Piperno M; Condemi S. 2004. Evidence of amelogenisis imperfecta in an early African Homo erectus. Journal of Human Evolution, 46:647-653.
The teeth of the Homo erectus child (Garba IV) recovered from Melka Kunture Ethiopia and dated to 1.5 Ma are characterized by generalized enamel dysplasia, reduced enamel radio-opacity, and severe attrition. This combination of features is found in a large group of hereditary, generalized enamel dysplasias known as amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). SEM studies carried out on epoxy replicas of teeth from the Garba IV child, confirmed that the defects noted were developmental and not due to diagenesis...

Östlund L; Bergman I; Zackrisson O. 2004. Trees for food- a 3000 year record of subarctic plant use. Antiquity, 78:278-286.
The authors present a unique long record of inner bark use by the Sami people of northern Scandinavia extending back to 2800 BP. Consistent patterns with respect to the direction and size of bark peeling scars shows that common values and standards were early applied. They further conclude that inner bark was important as a regular food and a vitamin C source at these northern latitudes. Bark-peeled trees as biological artefacts in forests also provide important data to understand subsistence st...

Altmann J; Alberts SC. 2005. Growth Rates in a Wild Primate Population: Ecological Influences and Maternal Effects Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 57:490 - 501.
Growth rate is a life-history trait often linked to various fitness components, including survival, age of first reproduction, and fecundity. Here we present an analysis of growth-rate variability in a wild population of savannah baboons (Papio cynocephalus). We found that relative juvenile size was a stable individual trait during the juvenile period: individuals generally remained consistently large-for-age or small-for-age throughout development. Resource availability, which varied greatly in...

Brown GR; Almond REA; Bates NJ. 2005. Adult-infant food transfer in common marmosets: An experimental study American Journal of Primatology, 65:301 - 312.
Infant marmosets and tamarins obtain solid food items from adults during and after the time of weaning. In addition to providing nutrients, food transfers may provide infants with the opportunity to learn about diet. The aim of this study was to investigate patterns of begging and food transfer in captive groups of common marmosets during tests with 1) palatable novel food, 2) unpalatable novel food, and 3) familiar food. Infants may gain an opportunity to learn about diet breadth by preferentia...

Caiazza J. 2005. The evolution versus religion controversy: How two mystiques devolved into politics. Modern Age, 47:104 - 112.
Caiazza discusses the irresolvable controversy of evolution and creation in the last century, in comparison to one not quite as old as the evolution controversy, and one which took place on different grounds in a different place, namely the Dreyfus Affair and its aftermath. Among other things, he describes how the affair caused the polarization of French political life, making no sense to some of the original group of Christian Dreyfusards, among them Charles Peguy. He remarks that Peguy's phras...

Carnegie SD; Fedigan LM; Ziegler TE. 2005. Behavioral Indicators of Ovarian Phase in White-Faced Capuchins (Cebus capucinus) American Journal of Primatology, 67:51-68.
In many primate species, conspicuous behavioral and/or morphological changes are indicators of the fertile phase of the female cycle. However, several primate species, such as the white-faced capuchin, lack these cues. This is referred to as concealed ovulation, and is argued to be a reproductive strategy that confuses paternity and lowers the risk of infanticide. We studied 10 adult female white-faced capuchins in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica, from January to June 2002. We determined th...

Condit C; Bates B. 2005. How lay people respond to messages about genetics, health, and race Clinical Genetics, 68:97-105.
There is a growing movement in medical genetics to develop, implement, and promote a model of race-based medicine. Although race-based medicine may become a widely disseminated standard of care, messages that advocate race-based selection for diagnosing, screening and prescribing drugs may exacerbate health disparities. These messages are present in clinical genetic counseling sessions, mass media, and everyday talk. Messages promoting linkages among genes, race, and health and messages emphasiz...

Di Rienzo A; Hudson RR. 2005. An evolutionary framework for common diseases: the ancestral-susceptibility model. Trends in Genetics, 21(11):596-601.
Unlike rare mendelian diseases, which are due to new mutations (i.e. derived alleles), several alleles that increase the risk to common diseases are ancestral. Moreover population genetics studies suggest that some derived alleles that protect against common diseases became advantageous recently. These observations can be explained within an evolutionary framework in which ancestral alleles reflect ancient adaptations to the lifestyle of ancient human populations, whereas the derived alleles w...

Eswaran V; Harpending H; Rogers AR. 2005. Genomics refutes an exclusively African origin of humans. Journal of Human Evolution, 49:1-18.
Ten years ago, evidence from genetics gave strong support to the “recent African origin” view of the evolution of modern humans, which posits that Homo sapiens arose as a new species in Africa and subsequently spread, leading to the extinction of the other archaic human species. Subsequent data from the nuclear genome not only failed to support this model, they do not support any simple model of human demographic history. In this paper, we study a process in which the modern human phenotype or...

Finlayson C. 2005. Biogeography and evolution of the genus Homo. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 20:457 - 463.
The debate about the origins of modern humans has traditionally focussed on two contrasting views. Multiregional evolution proposes that present-day populations worldwide are the descendants of in situ evolution after an initial dispersal of Homo erectus from Africa during the Lower Pleistocene. The alternative, Out-of-Africa 2, proposes that all present-day populations are descended from a recent common ancestor that lived in East Africa ~ 150,000 years ago, the population of which replaced all...

Hashimoto K; Koizumi H; Nakazato M; Shimizu E; Iyo M. 2005. Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in eating disorders: Recent findings and its pathophysiological implications Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 29:499 - 504.
Eating disorders, which include anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), are disorders characterized by abnormal patterns of weight regulation and eating behaviors, and by disturbances in attitudes and perceptions toward weight and body shape. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in regulating neural survival, development, function, and plasticity in the brain. Recent findings using heterozygous BDNF (±) knock-out (reduced BDNF levels) mice have provided evidence...

Hockett B; Haws JA. 2005. Nutritional ecology and the human demography of Neandertal extinction. Quaternary International, 137:21 - 34.
Demographic trends in human populations are influenced by natural selection acting upon differential rates of fertility and mortality. In human societies, fertility is primarily influenced by individual decision-making, as well as socially accepted norms of behavior. Many factors influence mortality in human populations. Among the latter, nutrition in the form of diverse essential nutrient intake may greatly influence maternal and fetal-to-infant mortality. Nutritional ecology is the study of th...

Kanazawa S; Novak D. 2005. Human Sexual Dimorphism in size may be triggered by Environmental Cues. Journal of Biosocial Science, 37:657-665.
Evolutionary biologists mostly assume that polygyny increases sexual dimorphism in size because, under polygyny, larger males monopolize mating opportunities and pass on their ‘large male’ genes to their sons. Available data on parent-child correlations in height among humans (Homo sapiens) do not support the crucial assumption that height is transmitted along sex lines. This paper instead suggests that human sexual dimorphism in size emerged, not because men got taller, but because women got ...

Kennedy GE. 2005. From the Ape’s Dilemma to the Weanlings Dilemma: Early Weaning in its Evolutionary Context Journal of Human Evolution, 48:123-145.
Although humans have a longer period of infant dependency than other hominoids, human infants, in natural fertility societies, are weaned far earlier than any of the great apes: chimps and orangutans wean, on average, at about 5 and 7.7 years, respectively, while humans wean, on average, at about 2.5 years. Assuming that living great apes demonstrate the ancestral weaning pattern, modern humans display a derived pattern that requires explanation, particularly since earlier weaning may result in ...

Laden G; Wrangham R. 2005. The rise of the hominids as an adaptive shift in fallback foods: Plant underground storage organs (USOs) and australopith origins Journal of Human Evolution, 49:482-298.
We propose that a key change in the evolution of hominids from the last common ancestor shared with chimpanzees was the substitution of plant underground storage organs (USOs) for herbaceous vegetation as fallback foods. Four kinds of evidence support this hypothesis: (1) dental and masticatory adaptations of hominids in comparison with the African apes; (2) changes in australopith dentition in the fossil record; (3) paleoecological evidence for the expansion of USO-rich habitats in the late Mio...

Leach CW. 2005. Against the Notion of a ‘New Racism’ Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 15:432 - 445.
Despite the de jure equality achieved in the second half of the 20th century, racial discrimination and racist political movements persist. This has encouraged the orthodoxy that a ‘new racism’ serves as an ideological basis of contemporary white investment in racial inequality in Western Europe, North America and Australasia. It is argued that this ‘new racism’ is shown in more subtle and indirect formal expressions, such as a denial of societal discrimination, rather than the once...

Müller AE; Soligo C . 2005. Primate sociality in evolutionary context. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 128:399 - 414.
Much work has been done to further our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the diversity of primate social organizations, but none has addressed the limits to that diversity or the question of what causes species to either form or not form social networks. The fact that all living primates typically live in social networks makes it highly likely that the last common ancestor of living primates already lived in social networks, and that sociality formed an integral part of the adaptive ...

Mitchell J; Mathews HF; Mayne L. 2005. Differences in breast self-examination techniques between caucasian and african american women. Journal of Women's Health, 14:476 - 484.
The efficacy of breast self examination (BSE) is controversial, recommendations to women are mixed, and reported differences in race in BSE are contrary to what is expected. We attribute this, in part, to measurement error in studies assessing the effectiveness of BSE. We assess differences by race in self –reported BSE while controlling selected sociodemographic indicators, BSE training, embarrassment, and perceived competence. Data are from personal interviews with 1011 women ages 50 and ol...

Mojab S. 2005. Class and race. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 106:73-81.
This chapter argues that a critical analysis of the interlocking notions of class, race, and gender is needed to enable adult education to respond to growing inequalities. ...

Morwood MJ; Brown P; Jatmiko; Sutikna T; Saptomo EW; Westaway KE; Awe Due R; Roberts RG; Maeda T; Wasisto S; Djubiantono T. 2005. Furthur evidence for small-bodied hominins from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia Nature, 437:1012-1017.
Homo florsiensis was recovered from Late Pleistocene deposits on the island of Flores in eastern Indonesia, but has the stature, limb proportions and endocranial volume of African Pliocene Australopithecus. The holotype of the species (LB1), excavated in 2003 from Ling Bua, consisted of a partial skeleton minus the arms. Here we describe additional H. florsiensis remains excavated from the cave in 2004. These include arm bones belonging to the holotype skeleton, a second adult mandible, and post...

Nekaris KAI. 2005. Foraging behaviour of the slender loris (Loris lydekkerianus lydekkerianus): implications for theories of primate origins JOURNAL OF HUMAN EVOLUTION, 49:289 - 300.
Members of the Order Primates are characterised by a wide overlap of visual fields or optic convergence. It has been proposed that exploitation of either insects or angiosperm products in the terminal branches of trees, and the corresponding complex, three-dimensional environment associated with these foraging strategies, account for visual convergence. Although slender lorises (Loris sp.) are the most visually convergent of all the primates, very little is known about their feeding ecology. Thi...

Ochsner KN; Gross JJ. 2005. The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9:242 - 249.
The capacity to control emotion is important for human adaptation. Questions about the neural bases of emotion regulation have recently taken on new importance, as functional imaging studies in humans have permitted direct investigation of control strategies that draw upon higher cognitive processes difficult to study in nonhumans. Such studies have examined (1) controlling attention to, and (2) cognitively changing the meaning of, emotionally evocative stimuli. These two forms of emoti...

Prentice AM. 2005. Early influence on human energy regulation:Thrifty genotypes and thrifty phenotypes Physiology and Behavior, 86:640 - 645.
Early influences on human ingestive behavior and other aspects of energy homeostasis can be defined according to two very different time scales: the evolutionary time frame responsible for setting the phenotype. Evolutionary influences: Famine has been a constant threat to human survival leading to the selection of thrifty genes. Thriftiness can take many forms: metabolic (an energy-sparing super efficient metabolism); adipogenic (propensity to rapid fat gain); physiologic (an ability to sw...

Sardi ML; Rozzi FR; Gonzalez-Jose R; Pucciarelli HM. 2005. South Amerindian craniofacial morpholoy: diversity and implications for amerindian evolution. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 127:1-12.
The most compelling models concerning the peopling of the Americas consider that modern Amerindians share a common biological pattern, showing affinities with populations of the Asian Northeast. The aim of the present study was to assess the degree of variation of craniofacial morphology of South American Amerindians in a worldwide context. Forty-three linear variables were analyzed on crania derived from American, Asian, Australo-Melanesian, European, South-Saharan African, and Polynesian reg...

Shackelford TK; Pound N; Goetz AT. 2005. Psychological and Physiological Adaptations to Sperm Competition in Humans Review of General Psychology, 9:228-248.
Postcopulatory competition between males, in the form of sperm competition, is a widespread phenomenon in many animal species. The extent to which sperm competition has been an important selective pressure during human evolution remains controversial, however. The authors review critically the evidence that human males and females have psychological, behavioral, and physiological adaptations that evolved in response to selection pressures associated with sperm competition. The authors consider, ...

Smith SM; Zwart SR; Block G; Rice BL; Davis-Street JE. 2005. The Nutritional Status of Astronauts Is Altered after Long-Term Space Flight Aboard the International Space Station Journal of Nutrition, 135:437-443.
Defining optimal nutrient requirements is critical for ensuring crew health during long-duration space exploration missions. Data pertaining to such nutrient requirements are extremely limited. The primary goal of this study was to better understand nutritional changes that occur during long-duration space flight. We examined body composition, bone metabolism, hematology, general blood chemistry, and blood levels of selected vitamins and minerals in 11 astronauts before and after long-duration (...

Sponheimer M; Lee-Thorp J; de Ruiter D; Codron D; Codron J; Baugh AT; Thackeray F. 2005. Hominins, sedges, and termites: new carbon isotope data from the Sterkfontein valley and Kruger National Park Journal of Human Evolution, 48:301-312.
Stable carbon isotope analyses have shown that South African australopiths did not have exclusively frugivorous diets, but also consumed significant quantities of C4 foods such as grasses, sedges, or animals that ate these foods. Yet, these studies have had significant limitations. For example, hominin sample sizes were relatively small, leading some to question the veracity of the claim for australopith C4 consumption. In addition, it has been difficult to determine which C4 resources were actu...

Susman R. 2005. Oreopithecus: Still Apelike After all these Years Journal of Human Evolution, 49:405-411.
Moyà-Solà and colleagues have reargued their case that the hand of Oreopithecus “approximates the pattern of early hominids, presumably as a response to similar functional demands” (2005: 395). Together with their earlier papers on the subject (Köhler and Moyà-Solà, 1997, Moyà-Solà et al., 1999 and Rook et al., 1999), the authors' view of Oreopithecus is that it had a hand like that of humans, while sporting the hip and foot of a habitual biped. Köhler and Moyà-Solà (1997: 11747) stated: “The mo...

Sussman RW; Garber PA; Cheverud JM. 2005. Importance of cooperation and affiliation in the evolution of primate sociality American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 128:84-97.
The idea that competition and aggression are central to an understanding of the origins of group-living and sociality among human and nonhuman primates is the dominant theory in primatology today. Using this paradigm, researchers have focused their attention on competitive and aggressive behaviors, and have tended to overlook the importance of cooperative and affiliative behaviors. However, cooperative and affiliative behaviors are considerably more common than agonistic behaviors in all prima...

Swami V; Tovee MJ. 2005. Female physical attractiveness in Britain and Malaysia: A cross-cultural study Body Image, 2:115-128.
Two purported cues to perceived female physical attractiveness are body mass index (BMI) and body shape as measured by the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). This study examined the relative contribution of both cues in several culturally socioeconomically distinct populations. Six hundred and eighty-two participants from Britain and Malaysia were asked to rate a set of images of real women with known BMI and WHR. The results showed that BMI is the primary determinant of female physical attractiveness, w...

Tashiro CJ. 2005. Health disparities in the context of mixed race: Challenging the ideology of race. Advances in Nursing Science, 28:203 - 211.
Debates are occurring about the relative contribution of genetic versus social factors to racial health disparities. An ideology of race is manifested in genetic arguments for the etiology of racial health disparities. There is also growing attention to people of tnixed race since the 2000 US Census enabled thetn to be counted. Consideration of the complex issues raised by the existence of people of mixed race may bring clarity to the debates about racial health disparities, offer a challen...

Tashiro CJ. 2005. Health disparities in the context of mixed race: Challenging the ideology of race. Advances in Nursing Science, 28(3):203-211.
Debates are occurring about the relative contribution of genetic versus social factors tp racial health disparities. An ideology of race is manifested in genetic arguments for the etiology of racial health disparities. There is also growing attention to people of mixed race since the 2000 US Census enabled them to be counted. Consideration of the complex issues raised by the existence of people of mixed race may bring clarity to the debates about racial health disparities, offer a challenge t...

Weinstein KJ. 2005. Body proportions in ancient Andeans from high and low altitudes American journal of physical anthropology, 128:569 - 585.
Living human populations from high altitudes in the Andes exhibit relatively short limbs compared with neighboring groups from lower elevations as adaptations to cold climates characteristic of high-altitude environments. This study compares relative limb lengths and proportions in pre-Contact human skeletons from different altitudes to test whether ecogeographic variation also existed in Andean prehistory. Maximum lengths of the humerus, radius, femur, and tibia, and femoral head breadth are me...

Williams FL; Belcher RL; Armelagos GJ. 2005. Forensic misclassification of ancient Nubian crania: implications for assumptions about human variation. Current Anthropology, 46:340 - 346.
The fundamental pattern of human biological diversity was widely held in premodern anthropology and contemporary folk ideologies to be principally "racial"--that is, largely homogeneous within groups and heterogeneous between them. By the middle of the twentieth century, however, this view had come under considerable scrutiny. Williams et al used several data sets to identify cranial remains from an ancient Meroitic Nubian population and found that it accurately classified very few of these rema...

Nakahara, S.; Poudel, K.; Lopchan, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Poudel-Tandukar, K.; Jimba, M.; Wakai, S.. 2006. Availability of childcare support and nutritional status of children of non-working and working mothers in urban Nepal American Journal of Human Biology, 18:169-181.
In many developing countries, poor women have multiple roles, and often their time constraints are so severe that their participation in income-generating activities results in reduced childcare time, which in turn affects child health. Previous studies have tended to investigate how childcare support influences nutrition of children with working mothers’ based on comparisons with non-working mothers. However, non-working mothers are not a homogeneous group, and we therefore need to distingu...

Oxenham, M.; Matsumura, H. 2007. Oral and physiological paleohealth in cold adapted peoples: Northeast Asia, Hokkaido American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 135:64-74.
This paper examines variables useful in reconstructing oral (caries, antemortem tooth loss, alveolar defects) and physiological (cribra orbitalia, linear enamel hypoplasia) well-being in two bioarchaeological assemblages from Hokkaido, Japan: Okhostk (n = 37 individuals) and Jomon (n = 60). Findings are compared and contrasted with each other, with published series from Honshu Japan, and samples from climatically near-equivalent Alaska. It was found that more meaningful comparisons of Hokkaido p...

Ziker JP. 2007. Subsistence and food sharing in northern Siberia: social and nutritional ecology of the Dolgan and the Nganasan Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 46:445-467.
Traditional foraging activities and extensive food sharing are critical to the contemporary nutritional well-being of Dolgan and Nganasan people in the Taimyr Region, Russia. Despite recent economic transformations geared toward free-market capitalism in the post-socialist era, since 1991, a native communal resource-management regime has developed. This article outlines the social and nutritional significance of subsistence and food sharing within a remote indigenous community in Arctic Siberia...

Cowan J; Devine C. 2008. Food, eating, and weight concerns of men in recovery from substance addiction Appetite, 50:33–42.
Dysfunctional eating patterns and excessive weight gains have been observed during recovery from drug and alcohol addictions. Yet, little is known about food choice behaviors among substance abusers and the role that food plays in their lives. The purpose of this study was to understand how men at different stages of recovery from substance addictions experienced food and eating, weight changes, and used food in recovery. A purposive, multi-ethnic sample of 25 urban men at different stages of re...

Leshem M; Saadi A; Alem N; Hendi K. 2008. Enhanced salt appetite, diet and drinking in traditional Bedouin women in the Negev Appetite, 50:71–82.
The Negev Bedouin are desert dwellers in high summer heat and scarce shade and water. They are under pressure to cease their traditional way of life. To document, while still possible, how traditional Bedouin nutritional habits may have accommodated to these conditions, we evaluated sodium appetite, diet and drinking in Bedouin women (n ¼ 31) who still partially maintained their traditional way of life in isolated tribal encampments in the spring of 2005. Data were compared to urban Bedouin wome...

Ristovski-Slijepcevic S; Chapman GE; Beagan, BL. 2008. Engaging with health eating discourse(s); ways of knowing about food and health in three ethnocultural groups in Canada Appetite, 50:167-178.
The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of how people make sense of healthy eating discourses by exploring the 'ways of knowing' about healthy eating among members of three different ethnocultural groups in Canada: African Nova Scotians, Punjabi British Columbians and Canadian-born European Nova Scotians and British Columbians. Data for this paper come from in-depth, individual interviews with 105 adults where they described their experiences, interpretations, and reasoning used...